When operating different systemslife support, engines, appliances in the cold season, a situation arises when a negative ambient temperature adversely affects the physical properties of the liquids that are inside them. For example, they are cooling fluids that serve to prevent overheating of the mechanisms themselves or a variety of heat carriers.
Therefore, the so-called antifreezeliquid. Antifreeze is a liquid substance that retains all its properties regardless of the temperature difference. Antifreezes are used in construction, in the production of cars, in heating and ventilation systems of private houses or industrial buildings.
Heat carriers and their types
The composition of almost all antifreeze includes water and special additives. The basis of any coolant can be:
- Propylene glycol - if you compare it with other speciesantifreeze, this substance does not cause any harm to human health, not only with direct contact, but even with the inhalation of its vapors. The main advantage of this type of antifreeze is its safety. That is why it is actively used in dual-circuit heat supply systems, since even if the substance enters the circuit with hot water, nothing terrible will happen. In addition, propylene glycol is used as an agent in the confectionery industry, being also a food additive. Typically, propylene glycol is green. Due to the availability of different colors of antifreeze on the market and there is confusion as to whether it is possible to mix antifreeze of different colors or not. It all depends on the purpose and operating conditions. Like other antifreezes, the freezing point of propylene glycol is about -35 ° C.
- Ethylene glycol - a very popular type of antifreeze, mainlybecause of its low market value, and in addition, it is available in two types: with freezing temperatures -30 ° C and -65 ° C. Its main drawback is the increased danger to human health. Therefore, this brand of antifreeze has a red color, so that if it leaks it is noticeable and its consequences can be quickly eliminated.
- Triethylene glycol - it is the least used antifreeze, mainly in those systems where high temperatures. Triethylene glycol is considered a special antifreeze.
Therefore, choosing which brand of antifreeze is necessary for you, it is better to solve this issue even before the construction of the house.
Properties of antifreezes and their characteristics
Antifreezes are different:
- Freezing point.
- Acid-base balance (pH).
- The color.
- Specific heat.
Each single brand of antifreeze has its own unique characteristics. Antifreezes in the structure have various additives which are necessary for increase of their quality.
Properties of antifreezes that are important in their operation
They are as follows:
- Operation for a long time. Without replacing the coolant, antifreeze systemscan be safely exploited for a long time. This also increases the duration of the service life of the entire heating or ventilation system as a whole.
- Antifreezes are resistant to corrosion. It is due to the presence of antifreeze in the compositionspecial additives inside the heating systems do not form rust. This helps to increase the efficiency of heating the room, and at the same time significantly reduces energy costs.
- Resistance to cavitation. In ordinary water, if the pressure in thesystem, inevitably occurs the appearance of bubbles. In the case of antifreeze, this is not observed. Thus, they also save the system from hydraulic shocks and vibrations.
In the production of antifreeze additives are used necessarily. The non-use of these components in propylene glycol or ethylene glycol would be unreasonable from an economic point of view.
Nuances when buying antifreeze
All antifreezes sold in the construction markethave a different price, depending on the brand, the manufacturer, the distinctive performance properties of the substance itself. Uninformed people often buy automotive antifreezes for their heating systems (transformer oil, antifreeze, etc.). This is categorically unacceptable, since they contain substances harmful to humans and animals. In addition, they are easily flammable.
The optimal solution in choosing the heating medium for heating is ethylene glycol. That is the brand of antifreeze, which is produced on its basis.
Tips and Tricks
One of the most common questions asked by shoppers is: "Is it possible to mix antifreeze of different colors? " Sometimes this is permissible, but only after a seriousverification of substances for compatibility. Most often mixing of different colors of antifreezes leads to a decrease in the operational properties of the coolant and the formation of a deposit of rust on the walls of the pipes.
Dilute antifreeze is best distilledwater. It does not contain salts of such chemical elements as calcium and magnesium, therefore it is usually softer than the required value. Ordinary water, when used together with antifreeze, is also likely to lead to precipitation. The permissible rigidity of the water used for dilution of antifreeze is 5 mg-equiv.
When carrying out any work with heating systemsit is necessary to monitor the indicator, such as the density of antifreeze. The table, as a rule, is placed on the reverse side of the container, with its help it is possible to determine the indices of a given heat-carrier brand.
Antifreezes based on ethylene glycol are less heat conductive than water (by 15-20%).
Without fear of reducing the efficiency of the heating system, antifreeze can be used for 5 years. Then you should completely drain the old one and fill with a clean, new coolant.
What is the density of antifreeze?
Density is indicated in grams per cm cubic. Check the freezing point and the amount of ethylene glycol will help the density of antifreeze. The density table contains many indicators, it is easy to use.
To check the density of the antifreeze, you can use a hydrometer. This is a device for measuring the density of antifreeze. It has two scales - for measuring density and freezing temperature.
Check the density of antifreeze refractometer
You can check the density of the antifreeze and the refractometer. Checking is quick, just a drop of coolant is enough.
The order of measurements is as follows:
- Pipette antifreeze onto the prism of the device.
- Focus the eyepiece.
- Read from the scale the indication on the index line.
You can also use the folk way -place a little substance in a plastic bottle, plug it and put it in the freezer compartment of the refrigerator. Stir in an hour. If the solution does not crystallize, then this antifreeze can be used at -24 ° C (average temperature of the freezer).
Density of antifreeze depending on temperaturechanges significantly, and when used at temperatures below -65 ° C it still begins to decompose. As a result, the operation of the heating system is disrupted, and the coolant itself will fail.</ p>