Blood is a unique substance that consistsfrom plasma and shaped substances. Depending on its composition, there are several types. They are classified by different systems, among which the ABO system is most often used. It distinguishes the first, which is also called the universal blood group, as well as the second, third and fourth groups.
Human plasma contains two types of agglutinins and two - agglutinogens. They can be present in the blood in different combinations and this sets the blood group:
- So, according to the system AB0, if there is α and β, then this is the first group, and it is also denoted by the number "0". It is called the universal blood group.
- The second contains proteins A and β and is designated "A".
- The third consists of B and α and is denoted by "B".
- The fourth includes A and B and is designated as "AB".
In addition to agglutinins and agglutinogens, the bloodthere is a specific antigen located on the surface of red blood cells. If you have it, you are talking about a positive Rh factor. If there is no antigen, then the person Rhesus is negative.
On the compatibility of blood groups began to speak inthe last century. At that time, gamotransfusion was used to restore the volume of circulating blood in the body. After a series of unsuccessful and successful experiments, scientists came to the conclusion that the transfused blood may be incompatible, and further observations showed that the blood of one group and one Rh factor may not be suitable for a patient with the same data.
However, during the experiments it was possible to findUniversal blood group, which is ideal for all other species. This kind can be transfused to recipients with the second, third and fourth group. Also in the course of testing, a universal blood group was identified, into which any other can be transfused, is the fourth group with a positive Rh factor.
According to statistics, about 40% of the planet's peoplethe first blood group. All of them are divided into two groups: Rh-positive 0 (I) and Rh-negative 0 (I). The latter have a universal blood group and a Rh factor that fits all. In other words, the materials of these people can be transfused to patients with any other group. Clearly it looks like this:
0 (I) Rhesus otter.
0 (I) Rhesus position.
A (II) Rhesus otr.
A (II) Rhesus pos.
B (III) rhesus otr.
B (III) Rhesus pos.
AB (IV) Rhesus otr.
AB (IV) Rhesus pos.
0 (I) Rhesus otter.
0 (I) Rhesus position.
A universal donor with the first positive blood is compatible with other groups, but only with a positive rhesus.
In our time, the first group with blood transfusiona recipient with another group is rarely used. If suddenly there is a situation in which it is necessary to pour the patient, then, as a rule, use in small amounts - no more than 500 ml.
If the recipient has a universal 1 blood group, the donor can only be with the same blood, ie:
- 0 (I) Rh- is only compatible with 0 (I) Rh-;
- 0 (I) Rh + is compatible with 0 (I) Rh- with 0 (I) Rh +.
Transfusion takes into account the characteristics of the donor and recipient, because even with the same group and rhesus, the fluids are not always compatible.
The second group
The second group has limitations on use. It can be used only for people with the same data and the same rhesus. So, for blood transfusion, the blood of the second group with negative rhesus is used in people with the second group with both positive and negative rhesus. A fluid with positive rhesus is used only in recipients with the same Rh. Also in the second you can pour in the first group.
This option is compatible not only with the third, but also with the fourth and first groups. A universal donor can donate blood to patients with B (III).
If the donor will have a third group, then his blood will be compatible with the following recipients:
- With Rh-positive blood donor, it can be transfused for people the fourth and third positive.
- With negative Rhesus: blood can be used for people with the third and fourth positive and negative groups.
Asking about which group of bloodis universal, you can answer that there are two. The first group with negative rhesus makes it possible to save the lives of all people, regardless of group and rhesus. But people with the fourth group and positive rhesus are universal recipients - they can pour in any blood, with any rhesus.
If the recipient will have a negative Rhesus, then any group with negative Rhes is poured into it.
Influence of the blood group on the conception of the child and pregnancy
At conception of the child the blood group does not haveno value, but the Rh factor is very important. If the mother has negative blood, and the child has a positive blood, an immunological reaction is observed throughout the pregnancy, at which the protein is produced in the mother's blood. If during repeated pregnancy the fetus will again have a positive rhesus, then the reaction of agglutination and hemolysis of erythrocytes will start in the woman's body. This situation was called the Rh-conflict.
Therefore, after the first pregnancy, a woman is recommended to inject an antiresusive globulin to break the immunological chain.
Other blood types
Interestingly, in the fifties of the pastcentury scientists have identified another group of blood, which can not be attributed to either the first or to any other. It is called Bomeiskaya, in the place where the bearers of this group were found.
The peculiarity of this group is that it does notcontains antigens A and B. But in its serum there is no antigen H, which can cause serious difficulties, for example, during the determination of paternity, since the baby will not have any antigen present in his blood in the blood of his parents. This group is very rare in the world (only 0.01%), and the chromosomal mutation is to blame for its appearance.</ p>