Blood transfusion is a therapeutic method, withwhich transfers blood and its products to one person to another. For this purpose, only donor blood is used. Such a procedure can save human life when there is a lot of blood loss, and the body is unable to make it up on its own. In general, there are a number of indications, in the presence of which a transfusion is prescribed: acute blood loss (with injuries, during operations, as well as in cervical and tubal pregnancies), chronic anemia, prolonged unceasing bleeding, decreased body resistance (which usually occurs before and after surgery), shock conditions, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, as well as coagulation disorders. Very often, this procedure is prescribed for hematological diseases, purulent-septic diseases and severe forms of toxicosis.
However, a blood transfusion also has a number of contraindications: decompensated heart disease, renal failure, pneumonia, tuberculosis, myocardial infarction and the presence of severe form of hypertension.
The fact is that such a procedure can because serious consequences for the body, up to a lethal outcome. Therefore, to date, doctors have developed a system of proper storage, canning of blood and techniques for its transfusion.
So, the blood is necessarily tested forpresence of HIV. The preparation and preservation of the obtained blood is carried out at special stations of its transfusion. Storage is carried out at a temperature of 5 to 7 degrees above zero. Before transfusion, the blood is warmed to room temperature.
Blood transfusion can be carried out directly (fromdonor to recipient) or indirect (blood collected in a vial containing a preservative) by. Direct transfusion is used extremely rarely. Indications are poor blood coagulability, prolonged bleeding in patients suffering from hemophilia, and the presence of traumatic shock of grade 3, but in combination with blood loss of approximately 25-45%. Donors for this type of transfusion should first be examined at a blood transfusion station. There he is carried out the necessary research and only then allowed for surgery.
It is important to remember the fact that blood transfusionbecomes possible only when the blood of the donor and the recipient must coincide in the group. In emergency cases, the use of 0 (I) group for all others is allowed. But patients with the first group are allowed only appropriate blood, and not any other.
Therefore, the compatibility of blood groups in transfusion- one of the main conditions for carrying out this procedure. To test it, two series of standard sera 0 (I), A (II), B (III) are used, which should be stored at a temperature of at least 5 and not more than 7 degrees. On a plate that is divided into four parts, a drop of each series is applied with different pipettes. Then, taking ten drops of blood with different dry chopsticks, they are added to each drop on the plate. In no case should there be a mix of series and groups. In five minutes the result can already be seen:
- If three sera have uniform color, the blood belongs to the first group.
- In the case of a negative reaction of serum A (II) and positive from the rest, the group A (II) is determined.
- If there was a negative reaction only from the side of B (III), we have a third group.
- In the event that the reaction affected all sera, the group of the examined patient is the fourth.
Only after the group is identifiedblood transfusion. Compatibility is the most important factor, because without its verification, trusting only the words of the patient or his relatives who may have inaccurate data, a person can die if he receives the wrong group.</ p>