Who is an infectious disease specialist? This is a doctor diagnosing, recognizing and treating infectious diseases that are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi and so on. From Latin, the word "infection" translates as "infect".
What is the profession?
What diseases does the infectionist cure? Doctors of this specialty are engaged in diseases arising from the activity of harmful bacteria that enter the human body. And also specialists of this profession are engaged in studying the nature of infections, their diagnosis, prevention of occurrence and the fight against infections.
Infectionists work directly in the spheresmicrobiology and epidemiology. Many diseases arise precisely because of the ingress of harmful microorganisms into the body. For example, rheumatism appears due to the presence of streptococci, and the stomach ulcer is due to Helicobacter pylori, etc.
The infectious disease doctor that heals? He deals directly with those diseases that can be transmitted from one person to another. These diseases include simple off-season illnesses, such as ARVI, influenza, etc., as well as those belonging to the most dangerous - plague, cholera, AIDS, and a number of others.
How infectious diseases are transmitted
There are several varieties of such ailments. They are divided into groups according to the principle of transmission of infection:
1. Intestinal diseases - the infection gets into the body when eating dirty vegetables and fruits. Taking food with unwashed hands can also contribute to the occurrence of intestinal diseases.
2. Diseases of the respiratory tract - the infection is transmitted by airborne droplets.
3. Diseases of the blood. They are divided into two types. Transmissible - enter the body through the bites of various insects (mites, fleas, mosquitoes, etc.), not transmissible - transmitted through blood transfusions or when injected through dirty needles.
4. Diseases of the external cover - infection occurs with close contact with the patient, through the mucous membranes or skin.
If the infection is transmitted only from person to persona person, then the disease is called anthroponous, if from animals to people - zoonotic. Here we should pay attention to one curious fact: medicine knows cases when people became infected with AIDS, becoming infected by the transmissive method, that is, the mosquito was bitten by the virus, then he sucked to a healthy person and passed the virus to him. The likelihood of infection in this way is 1/10000 and it occurs mainly in places where AIDS is very common. For example, in some African countries, every third person suffers from this disease.
Infectionist treats all the ailments that occur due to the penetration into the body of viruses, fungi, prions, bacteria, etc. In this case, each group causes certain diseases:
- viruses - influenza, measles, HIV, meningitis, hepatitis, etc .;
- fungi - epidermofitiyu, mukormikoz, candidosis, aspergillosis, cryptococcosis and others;
- prions are infectious microscopic particles,affecting the brain. They differ from other pathogens in that they consist of only one protein. Causes diseases leading to dementia (familial insomnia, kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob, Scherker syndrome);
- bacteria - cholera, plague, salmonellosis, dysentery, etc.
Infectious diseases for children
There are a lot of childhood types of infections, and some of them have not even been studied, since it is extremely rare. But there is a list of the main diseases that are most often affected by babies. An infectious disease that heals in children?
Measles is considered one of the most contagious diseases,and all children are susceptible to it from three years old. At an earlier age, it is extremely rare. Measles are transmitted by airborne droplets, they are often infected in the kindergarten. The incubation period of this disease is from 10 to 17 days. In very rare cases, it can last up to 21 days, if at this time the child takes medication for colds that can mute the development of measles for a while.
The susceptibility of children to rubella is somewhat lower. It is also transferred from a sick person to a healthy person. The rubella carrier is dangerous only in the first days of illness, then the infection becomes non-contagious. The incubation period is from 15 to 24 days.
Infectionist that heals? Parotitis, otherwise - "pig", is also included in the list of diseases that this doctor is engaged in. Such an infection is less contagious than measles and rubella. Transmitted by airborne droplets, it is easy to get infected if a healthy person is in the same room with a sick person. The incubation period is from 11 to 21 days, sometimes up to 26 days.
Scarlet fever is caused by streptococci. Transmitted by airborne droplets, but you can still get infected through toys and personal items (for example, a towel). The incubation period is from 2 to 7 days, sometimes lasts up to 12 days.
Diphtheria arises from a toxigenic rod that produces a strong poison (exotoxin). It is transferred from the carrier to a healthy person. The incubation period is from 2 to 10 days.
Infectionist that heals yet? Poliomyelitis is a rare disease, the infection has been minimized through regular preventive vaccinations. The child can get sick from contact with the carrier of the virus. Poliomyelitis is also transmitted through unwashed fruits, vegetables and airborne droplets. The incubation period is from 5 to 35 days, but more often not more than 12 days.
Chickenpox - a lightweight pox that wasfinally defeated by Soviet medics in the twentieth century. Otherwise, this infection is called chicken pox. It is transmitted through the air and is not very dangerous, it takes about a week. The susceptibility to chickenpox in children is high. The incubation period is from 11 to 21 days, but mostly 14 days.
Infections in Pregnancy
The infectious disease doctor that heals? He also deals with diseases that affect pregnant women. Each infection represents a great danger to the fetus. The emergence of some of them depends directly on the woman's immunity, and the vital conditions and the presence of stresses are of great importance.
Infectionist that heals during pregnancy? The most dangerous diseases are rubella, chickenpox, cytomegalovirus infection, toxoplasmosis, chlamydia, herpes, mycoplasmosis, ureaplasmosis, syphilis, hepatitis B and C, HIV infection.
Treatment of infectious diseases
Treatment takes place in specially equipped hospitals. In mild cases, home treatment is possible. A mandatory condition is strict adherence to the anti-epidemic regime.
Infectionist that heals? He deals with diseases transmitted from one person to another. Times when many infectious diseases were practically incurable, long gone. Now doctors have developed many types of preventive vaccines, and there is also a large number of effective medicines. The list of the latter includes antibiotics, immunoglobulins and other drugs.
Herpes virus can not only strikemucous membranes and skin, but also negatively affect the central nervous system, internal organs and eyes. Basically, it is transmitted by airborne droplets. If herpes is genital, then it becomes infected through sexual contact.
Herpes family includes the following diseases: varicella, cytomegalovirus and shingles. After getting into the body, herpes remains in it for life. Often in a "sleeping" form. But under the influence of a number of reasons can manifest itself. Most often, herpes affects the mucous membranes and skin, but it can also affect the brain, adrenal glands, liver, lungs and spleen.
An infectious herpes treats all varieties. This disease is very dangerous for pregnant women, since it can damage the fetus. Herpes also contributes to cervical cancer.
Treatment of herpes
Infectionist that heals? Herpes at the usual course of the disease is treated with ointments,which are applied to the rash. The latter is covered with a dry crust, which subsequently disappears. With a widespread lesion of the skin, local treatment is performed.
If the oral mucosa is affected, it should be rinsed with a weak solution of potassium and take liquid food. Erosions are lubricated with a solution of novocaine.
Infectionist that heals yet? He also deals with eye herpes. Here the kerecid is applied, which is buried in the eyes. Another tool is "Human leukocyte interferon" and other local effects (laser, cryotherapy, etc.).
Do worms relate to infectious diseases?
Undoubtedly, since their larvae infect the body. Glistov exists in more than 20 different species, they not only live in the human body, but also cause various additional diseases.
Larvae enter the body together with food, wateror dust. Ripen they are already directly inside. Sometimes worms can even lead to death if they get into the brain. Often the cause of infection is the meat of sick animals or poorly processed fish. Paradox: worms from humans are not transmitted to animals, and from them people can become infected.
What treatment is prescribed
There are several harmless to humans, butdeadly for parasites of drugs. They destroy eggs, larvae and worms themselves. Medicines are able to act immediately on several types of parasites.
Destroy the parasites in the body independentlynot recommended, it is better to see a doctor. Infectionist treats worms of all varieties. Initially, the doctor must determine the type of worms. This is done by taking feces for analysis, and only after that is prescribed the appropriate treatment.
Prevention of infectious diseases
Prevention is as important as treatment. Ideally, it is better to prevent infection than to treat it later. Great attention should be paid to cleanliness and personal hygiene. Wash hands after dirty work, before eating and after the toilet. This will save you from a lot of intestinal infections. Sometimes they are served by handrails in public transport, money, counters in shops, etc. Therefore, when you come home, you need to wash your hands in any case.
The carriers of infections can be rodents,cockroaches, as well as many insects (especially ticks and mosquitoes). In order to protect yourself, you need to treat special places with their chemicals and do not let them spread. There are many tools that can be used - aerosols, fumigators, poisonous mixtures, etc.</ p>