Turkey still refuses to admit the fact,that entire peoples who inhabited the Ottoman Empire were either destroyed or expelled from their territories in the early twentieth century - the genocide of the Greeks, Armenians, Assyrians lasted more than ten years. With countries that have decided to recognize these terrible events as valid, Turkey breaks diplomatic relations (for example, it happened to Sweden only recently). During the Holocaust, six million Jews were killed at the hands of the Hitlerites, and this was recognized as the largest genocide in history, but if you add the numbers of all the people killed in the leadership of Mustafa Kemal in Turkey, it is unlikely that there will be less deaths. Only Armenians were killed more than a half million, and the genocide of the Greeks carried out a little less. Bloody purges overtook representatives of not only national, but also religious minorities, who, by coincidence, found themselves under Turkish rule.
Turkey for the Turks
How could other nations interferegreatness of the empire, Turkey does not explain to this day, denying its criminal acts - ruthless ethnic cleansing of Armenians and Assyrians, the genocide of the Greeks in their historical homeland - in Ponte and Anatolia. The beginning was laid even before the First World War, and with its unleashing the Turks felt complete impunity. The genocide of the Greeks passed by several all crushing waves. The first of the strongest was in 1914, then, when the Greco-Turkish War began, in 1919, and until 1923, the massacre continued almost without rest.
There were "marches of death," executions, torture,unbearable cruelties of punishment, mass expulsions, forced deportation, which bring death to entire families. During the Greek genocide, Orthodox monuments and shrines were destroyed in Turkey. But the Greek population, like the Armenian population, is not going to forget these events. The memory of the millions of dead compatriots is alive, and every year people mourn for the victims of the genocide of the Greeks. This day is the 19th of May. Greece notes his black sorrow. It would seem that the Turks need to be guilty of crimes committed by their country, to ask for forgiveness and in every way to smooth their guilt. But everything happens not so. Turkish authorities do not recognize the genocide of the Greeks. And the Armenian Genocide is not recognized either.
Day of mourning
Only in February 1994 the Parliament of Greeceit was decided to identify their attitude to these events and establish a day of memory. Turkey responded to this as well. Now there is a national holiday - only cheerful. The Day of Sports and Youth, established precisely in memory of the Samsun landing of the troops of the unscrupulous Atatürk. As if no more than 1,200,000 unarmed Pontic Greeks were killed, from small to large. For Turkey, the day of the genocide of the Greeks is not an event of mourning. On the contrary. It is incredibly difficult to admit this. But do not recognize the criminal. Mustafa Kemal, nicknamed the father of the Turks - Ataturk, happily watched the fire in Smyrna and welcomed the massacre in its streets, loudly exclaiming: "Turkey is cleansed of foreigners and traitors!"
Winston Churchill later grieved over the transformationSmyrna in ashes and ashes, and also about the fact that England could not prevent the extermination of the entire Christian population in these territories. In 1918, the US ambassador to Turkey said that the Ottoman Empire carved two million children, women and men - Assyrians and Greeks, and a half million Armenians. When the war ended, forced emigrants and rare survivors after the "death marches" decided to return home. They did not expect that they would eventually die there after all. The whole world could not or did not want to prevent this terrible cruelty. And now not all countries have recognized that this was the systematic destruction of entire nations. The genocide of the Greeks on May 19 is not celebrated everywhere, and this is unfair.
Earth of ancestors
In the early twentieth century the Pontian Greeks couldto mark the third millennium of its settlement on the lands of modern Turkey, where they constituted the overwhelming majority among the population of Asia Minor, especially in Ponte and Anatolia (its northern and western parts). Many Greeks also lived in Cappadocia. They were natives, "Turkification" and Islamization did not yield, remaining Orthodox Christians. This is what has become a challenge to the Ottoman Empire. The Turks were most afraid of losing these territories, as Bulgaria, Serbia and Greece managed to isolate themselves from the empire. On the day of the memory of the genocide of the Greeks, historians always remind that Pontian Christians have always been educated and wealthy, thus, significantly influenced the economy of Turkey and its political decisions. In addition, there were too many of them, and the "Greek question" even before the outbreak of the First World War arose for Turkey, as they say.
In 1908 there was a Young Turk revolution,which brought with it "pan-Turkism" - not even a nationalist but a racist doctrine, which created very quickly the entire ideological base in order to exterminate the Christians of Turkey in a total way. That's when the slogan was pronounced: "Turkey for the Turks." In 1911, the destruction of ethnic minorities (mainly Armenians and Greeks) was officially permitted. And persecution began. The Greeks confiscated property, the terror began and the expulsion of the Gentiles from the coast of the Aegean Sea. All this was arranged as a plan for homogenization of Anatolia: if Islamization and turkinization failed, then all this population will disappear from the face of the earth. Measures were taken not only political and economic, even though the genocide of the Pontian Greeks began exactly like this. The memoirs written by both Turks and Greeks speak of the extraordinary pressure on the part of the Turkish media, the restriction of the programs of all Greek educational institutions, the call of Greek men to the workers' battalions, and the absolutely draconian financial measures.
The second wave
Ethnic cleansing did not stop even after the Firstworld war. In 1919, the Greek-Turkish war began, completely untied the hands of Turkish nationalists. The Young Turks led by Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) reacted to the cleansing of the Pontus territory with a passion and exceptional activity. In 1919, on May 19 - the Day of Remembrance of the Victims of the Genocide of the Pontic Greeks, the Turkish nationalists landed in Samsun with the whole army, and the second, most terrible wave of extermination of foreigners began. Even universal mobilization against foreign intervention was declared. It is interesting only who is the intervent here: the Greeks who settled on these shores three thousand years ago, or the Turks, who then not only as nations, but also as a separate nationality did not exist? And the massacre began - with all the cruelty impossible to imagine.
The World War has expanded for the nationalistspolitical framework and made it possible to implement a plan for the extermination of Christians. First, the Greeks were expelled from Thrace, then from Ionia. On the Day of Remembrance of the Genocide of the Greeks of Asia Minor, everyone is remembered. They persecuted Christians inside the country, into the desert, and so that the persecuted perished on the way every day. The genocide of the Pontian Greeks was the culmination of this wave. Did not touch (yet) only the Levantine and Turk-Christians. They were few and they were hiding. There were many other Christians - more than four million people. They are monophysites - Assyrians and Armenians, with whom the nationalists have already been defeated, Orthodox - Greeks and Syrians of the south, Protestants - Greeks and Armenians, Catholics - Arabs and Armenians. The worst thing is that in a hundred years, nothing, in principle, has changed. Still in the Middle East, Christians are brutally murdered, they are also destroying their shrines.
View from the outside
Even the Germans and Austrians, the allies of Turkey inwar, looking at the unprecedented scale of murders, were amazed and began to speak out about it, basing their objections on the fact that such intensity of persecution can not be dictated by military reasons, rather, political or religious goals are being pursued there. Even some representatives of the Turkish authorities objected to this type of deportation. In Samsun himself, the Austrian consul Kwiatkowski called these persecutions a catastrophe, which will turn out to be even more negative for Turkey than the slaughter of Armenians. And in the service note he wrote that the complete extermination of the Pontic Greeks is a sincere desire of the Turkish people themselves.
And this desire was so strong that the Turkshave ceased to take into account one very important fact. When the Armenian genocide happened, they could do anything, there was not a single deterrent for the Turks. And in the case of the Pontic Greeks was. In the north of Greece, recently liberated, there were still up to half a million Muslim Turks. Until 1916, Greece was neutral. And at any time could come out of neutrality. Nevertheless, they launched the second wave of genocide of the Pontian Greeks. Photos of those times will terrify anyone. Only "Amele tambour" is worth something. These are the same workers' battalions of civilized death, in which all the Greek Greeks - from teenagers to old men - were called. More than three hundred thousand died in these, still pre-Hitler concentration camps. However, the persecution of the Pontic Greeks took place in quite different conditions than, for example, the Ionian genocide of the Greeks. May 19, the Day of Sorrow, always remember which Pontians resisted. Partisan detachments were created everywhere, and the struggle was conducted constantly, which was not observed in the west of Asia Minor.
Rich Pontic Greeks did not pay for long"otkupnye" in twenty gold Turkish liras. They were simply deprived of property, land, factories and factories. And the destitute immediately went to the mountains. Deserters from the Turkish army also flocked here, since all military Greek and Armenian origin were gradually disarmed and shot. Thus, there were partisan detachments, most often acting separately, since they did not have a single leadership. Battles with a well-armed Turkish army had to be conducted by the Greeks possessing picks and stakes. On the day of the memory of the genocide of the Greeks, thousands and thousands of names are remembered, and still it is impossible to remember all, because the whole people were exterminated - almost completely. But the names of Pontic heroes-guerrillas will forever remain in the annals of historical memory.
Only because of their protection in the area of Amis and Pafrof the two hundred thousand Greeks, there survived thousands of fifty. Already in 1915 the Turks were horrified by the encounter with some partisan detachments. For example, the detachment of Vasileos Anfopulos earned himself an unfading glory. Partisans Pandelisa Anastasiadis opposed the huge Turkish army, the battle with which lasted many days. When the ammunition was over, the guerrillas preferred to perish, but not surrender. The detachment of Anastasios Papadopoulos destroyed seven hundred Turkish military Liva Pasha.
Resistance was rampant and violent, andAtatürk was forced to send a huge army under the Copalants to defeat the partisans. Partisans led by Euclidis Kurtidis barely managed to remove children and women from this zone. Many worthy commanders were among the Pontic Greeks. Although this movement itself consisted of no more than seven thousand participants who until 1923 stayed in more than harsh conditions of a mountainous harsh terrain, without the opportunity most of the time (due to snowy debris) to get themselves food in the surrounding villages. On the Day of Genocide of the Pontian Greeks, on May 19, they always remember this exceptional resilience.
The weapons were either primitive or captured beforeuntil the Russians helped the coreligionists. However, this could not radically change the situation, the guerrilla movement was in any case doomed to failure. In February 1918, Russia left Trebizond, and most of the population withdrew from the historical places of three thousand years of residence and followed the Russian army. Refugees settled on the Georgian coast and in the Caucasus regions.
The apogee of the genocide of the Pontic Greeks (since May 19, 1919year) was achieved not without the help of Germany, which laid eyes on the economic wealth of the Middle East - Turkey and Enghis - much earlier. It even promoted genocide and its further spread. It was the Germans who proposed to mobilize Christians into workers' detachments, which became death camps for them. It was led by the German colonel Liman von Santer, it was by his efforts that by 1916 the entire population was expelled from the territories on which he was disposing. People from small to large wandered deep into the country without food and water - and died, died, died ... By February 1917 only a quarter of the displaced population survived. In Kerasund, out of fourteen thousand, only four survived.
But when the Atatürk landed with the army, the whole pastalready ceased to seem the most terrible of what could happen. Thousands and thousands of Greeks were driven to temples and burned alive, all their settlements were looted, women were raped and killed. In Pafra, ninety per cent of the Greeks were destroyed. All are killed in Samsun. Young Turks in nearby towns and villages over 350 thousand people were tortured. The Turkish military minister rubbed his hands and smiled rather. "We will soon solve the Greek problem in the same way as I have already decided the Armenian!" - he declared.
Physical extermination or deportation were neededTurkish authorities in order to eliminate the unreliable and committed to Russia. People were sent to all the families on foot to waterless areas, without medical assistance, without food, without men, who were called in the "amel Tabur" - labor, or rather, concentration camps. Almost nobody survived there. And the Pontian Greeks from Smyrna (Izmir), who had been called to the Turkish army before, were completely cut out in 1915, who did not manage to escape.
Deported to the country much morehalf a million women with old people and children, and there was almost no one left alive either, which was recorded by George Rendell from the British Embassy. According to the US Ambassador Henry Morgenthau - up to a million people. What do the Turks understand by deportation? The male population is systematically destroyed, and the elderly, women and children are evicted at twenty-four hours - under escort, without food and water, on foot. Villages are burnt directly with evicted - there is nowhere to go back. So, whoever is not killed immediately, he will die of cold, hunger and disease.
In September 1922 Ataturk brought the Turkishtroops in Smyrna. On the first day, murders, rapes and looting began. At first, gasoline was poured and the Armenian quarter was set on fire, then the rest of the Christian, including the Greek ones. People died in the fire, and to drown out their screams, the Turkish military band played loudly, and the Allied fleet stood at the port at that time, surveying all this action with binoculars and not interfering in anything, even when the massacre moved directly to the harbor. The French consulate offered asylum to Metropolitan Chrysostom, famous for his holiness, but he refused to accept this invitation without his own flock.
The French did not want to save the flock, but the shepherdgiven to the Young Turks. Commander of Ataturk forces Nureddin Pasha gladly sent the Metropolitan to the mercy. Lord Chrysosorum took a martyr's death and prayed while he was stabbed with knives, beaten, cut off his ears, and gouged out his eyes. And with it all Christians of Smyrna were lost. This was written by Izmir Hemingway, who visited Izmir: the consequences were really terrible, the Turks completely carved out Armenians and Greeks not only in the city. but also in its environs, and then sank those ships, on which refugees sheltered.
Today Turkey is a direct successor of the state,which was created by the very same Atatürk, and May 19 - the Day of the memory of the genocide of the Pontian Greeks - there is celebrated as a holiday created as a counterbalance. Everyone is decorated with Kemal's monuments (without exception, everyone!), And it is impossible to speak about Ataturk with impartiality - such jail expects if the crowd does not succeed in nailing stones. Their first president is an icon, and all his actions are surrounded by a halo of holiness. And if a person says that the Day of Pontian Greeks' genocide is based on the fact that the Turkish authorities were a little heated some day, this person is guaranteed a prison for a long time and for a long time. Turkey is NATO and very much wants in the EU. However, they will be admitted there only if recognition of the Armenian Genocide, Greeks and other small nations in the first half of the twentieth century.
In addition, Europe is greatly embarrassed by the interpretationthe Turkish authorities of the term "human rights", as well as the president Erdogan reasonably reproached that he indulges in the ideas of Pan-Turkism, which again raises his head, even in attempts to reincarnate the Ottoman Empire in its more modern version. On May 19, the genocide of the Pontic Greeks will never be celebrated in Turkey. They will have fun and be proud of the "great" history of their country. The planned destruction of peoples here has not been forgotten, not condemned, and may well repeat.</ p>