Ideas of the theory of passionarityGumilev was originally used to understand the development, formation, extinction and survival of ethnic groups, and passionaries - as a necessary potential for the preservation and revival of ethnic entities. The theory of passionarity is based on biological phenomena that are peculiar not only to people, but also to animals. Therefore passionarians are represented by the author as individuals possessing an increased level of energy, which is used by them for survival processes.
In psychology the theory of passionarityis regarded as a science in which a new category of people is described, possessing the features of a heroic personality. These traits develop in the process of education based on the increased potential of the child's activity, which is directed by teachers to socially significant goals. From a psychological and pedagogical point of view, passionarity is a complex of socially valuable qualities of the personality, the unity of which allows a person to show his increased activity in socially significant activity, useful both for society and for the individual.
1) Willed qualities. The theory of passionarity gives a characterization of a passionary personality as a person with a "long will". And although the goal often remains illusory, the passionarian person, under the irresistible desire to work, easily overcomes any obstacles encountered on the way to achieving the conceived, finds ways and means to achieve the goal.
2) Adaptability. Passionary theory of ethnogenesis suggests that a passionary person is capable of conquering new territories, of their development and use. Therefore, it has a high level of adaptation to the new conditions, as well as the ability to change the conditions for themselves, improving the new environment. His ability to adapt is assessed as superadaptation.
3) Sacrifice. Passionary leaders live a bright, but short life, because ready to sacrifice themselves for the good of others. They are often diagnosed with a risk appetite, a low level of value of one's own life combined with a feeling of passion and impulsiveness.
4) Aggressiveness. Passionary theory in some sources is called the theory of aggression, tk. is connected with the conquest of territories, with the waging of wars, revolutions, riots, revolts. Passionarians also have a high level of aggressiveness, because are generals, leaders, soldiers. But aggressiveness for them is only a means for changing the situation, breaking the way for the development of the ethnos. The ultimate goal is defined as constructive, i.e. aimed at creating new, more comfortable living conditions for the society.
5) Temperament. Passionarians are characterized as people active from birth, temperamental, so often they are diagnosed with a choleric or sanguine type of temperament.
6) Complementarity. It is assessed as a positive complementarity, i.e. is manifested as a "consonance" with its people. In its ethnos, the passionarian person feels not just "his" person, but also feels responsible for all members of society. Complementarity is initially manifested in small collectives and is closely related to adaptation, i.e. when a child enters a new collective, he perceives his members as "his own", which allows him to quickly get used to the new conditions.
Theory of passionarityGumilev built on the description of vivid historical personalities who were able to change the life of their ethnos, bring it to a new level of development. Psychological science, carrying out biographical research, was able to draw a portrait of a passionarian based on the personal qualities and traits of nature that are characteristic of such people, which allows them to recognize and recognize the passionarians of the present and direct their activities to socially significant activities.</ p>