Man - the most complex, multidimensional,an incomprehensible phenomenon on earth. In psychological science, people are traditionally treated in three main categories: the individual, the personality and the individuality. What is their difference? The individual is a category that treats man as a natural, physical being, as a highly developed animal with its organic needs, however, fundamentally different from other animals. Personality is a social category. These are the characteristics of a person who are acquired by him in society, connect him with the environment and make him a representative of a social group, a community of people. Finally, individuality is a characteristic of man as a natural phenomenon and as a member of society in the aggregate and interconnection. Individuality is formed throughout life.
Personality is the basic concept of psychology. However, in modern science there is still no universally accepted definition of it, because the phenomenon is very complex and multifaceted. In foreign and domestic psychology, there are several fundamental theories of personality, each of which gives its interpretation of its structure and development.
Psychodynamic theory of personality
The founder of the theory of psychoanalysis Z.Freud in the early twentieth century formulated his model of personality. According to Freud, the basis of personal development and existence are the instincts of life and death. The most important of which he considered sexual, which throughout life at the earliest stages of development and to a very old age, govern human behavior. In the structure of personality, the psychoanalyst identified three main components that are in constant conflict and thus give incentives to development: Id, Ego and Super-Ego. The id in the personality constantly strives to satisfy desires and inclinations, to constant, every-minute detente, the ego - before satisfying, correlates these desires with the notions of norms of social morality and morality that are represented by the Super-Ego. Intrapersonal conflict, caused by the struggle of these three structures, can lead to mental disorders, neuroses and somatic diseases.
The psychodynamic theory of personality was laterrevised by a disciple and follower of Freud K.G. Jung. He created his analytical theory, which was based on other ideas about the structure of the individual. The scientist-analyst believed that the development of personality is promoted not by sexual instinct, but by creative vital energy. Jung's personality theory distinguishes three components of this energy: the ego is the conscious part of the subjective world, the personal unconscious is experiences and complexes formed that are forced out of consciousness, the collective unconscious is a deep layer of the subjective that is woven from archetypes - vague images, patterns of behavior, humanity.
Behavioral theory of personality
The basis of this theory is the representationpsychologists-behaviorists that the personality consists of experience acquired by a person during life, under the influence of his environment. The main structural elements of the personality are reflexes and skills obtained as a result of social learning. And, some psychologists believed that the personality develops due to external environmental circumstances, while others considered it as incentives for its development of life goals and expectations that people seek to get from their implementation.
Cognitive theory of personality
This theory was justified by the American psychologist J.Kelly, who believed that the basis of personal development lay the processes of comprehension of a person's life in the totality of the past, present and future with the help of models of the world designed by him, original constructs. Personality, thus, consists of a system of such constructs, views and interpretations by a person around the world. People with similar constructs are attracted to each other. So there is love, friendship, group interaction and mutual understanding.
Any theory of personality, existing in psychology, tries to present its vision of the complex and multifaceted concept of "personality".</ p>