There are many pathologies thatare inherited and laid down at the genetic level. Nevertheless, some of them are not immediately apparent, but only in adulthood. Among such diseases is Gardner's syndrome. This pathology refers to benign neoplasms, sometimes tends to malignancy, that is, turns into cancer.
Description of Gardner's Syndrome
This pathology became known relativelyrecently. It was first described in the middle of the 20th century by the scientist Gardner. It was he who established the connection between benign skin, bone and digestive tract. Another name for the disease is a family (or hereditary) adenomatous polyposis. Gardner's syndrome is scary not only with numerous cosmetic skin defects. It is believed that polyposis of the large intestine turns into a malignant form in 90-95% of cases. For this reason, pathology is attributed to obligate precancerous conditions. Differential diagnosis is carried out with atheromas, Ricklenhausen syndrome, single osteomas and intestinal polyps.
Causes of the disease and the mechanism of development
Gardner's syndrome is hereditarypathologies. It is transmitted at the genetic level from parents and other family members (grandparents). The type of inheritance of this disease is autosomal dominant. This means a high probability of transmission of pathology from parents to children. The mechanism underlying the development of Gardner's syndrome is mesenchymal dysplasia. Since this skin forms the skin, bones and mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract, a clinical picture characteristic for this disease is observed. In addition to the hereditary predisposition, mesenchymal dysplasia can be formed under the influence of harmful factors affecting intrauterine development in the first trimester of pregnancy.
Gardner's Syndrome: symptoms of the disease
Most often, the disease manifests itself in adolescentage (from 10 years). In some cases, the first symptoms begin later - already in adulthood. Gardner's syndrome has the following manifestations: it is a neoplasm of the skin, soft tissues, bones and digestive system. In addition to the intestine, polyps can appear in the stomach and PDC. On the skin, you can observe atheromas, dermoid and sebaceous cysts, fibromas. It is also possible the appearance of benign soft tissue formations. These include lipomas and leiomyomas. All these tumors can occur on the face, scalp, arms or legs. In addition, bone lesions occur. They also belong to benign formations, but often complicate functions. For example, the osteoma of the bones of the lower jaw, the skull. These growths interfere with chewing, they can press on the brain structures. The most formidable manifestation of the disease is polyposis of the intestine and other organs of the digestive tract. In most cases, neoplasms of the mucosa of the digestive tract are malignant, that is, they become cancer. Polyps can for a long time not make themselves felt. Most often, patients complain of complications: intestinal obstruction, bleeding.
Treatment of Gardner's syndrome in Cuba: the benefits
Since the disease belongs to the obligateprecancer, surgical removal of neoplasms is necessary. It is very important to diagnose Gardner's syndrome in a timely manner. Photos of patients can be seen in the literature on oncology or on special sites. In addition to clinical manifestations, it is necessary to conduct a radiograph of the digestive tract, a colonoscopy. Lesions of the skin and polyposis of the intestine allow you to make the correct diagnosis. Treatment of Gardner's syndrome is carried out in many countries. The advantages of the clinics of Cuba include the latest equipment, the cost of surgical interventions, highly qualified specialists from around the world. Treatment consists in removal of the affected part of the intestine. You can also get rid of cosmetic skin defects.</ p>