Pseudobulbar syndrome is a violation of functionsfacial muscles as a result of the defeat of the central nervous pathways, going from the centers of the cerebral cortex to the motor nuclei of the nerves of the medulla oblongata. There are bulbar and pseudobulbar syndromes. With bulbar syndrome, complete atrophy of facial muscles is observed, and in pseudobulbarnym reflexes of oral automatism are increased.
Bulbar and pseudobulbar syndromes. Symptoms
One of the main symptoms of diseases isdisturbance of the swallowing reflex. A person can not chew on his own. Violated articulation. There is difficulty in speaking, hoarseness of voice. Pseudobulbar syndrome is characterized by a lesser atrophy of the muscles of the tongue and pharynx than the bulbar one. With this syndrome, the patient experiences violent laughter or crying, not associated with external stimuli. The face is like a mask, devoid of any emotions. There is also uncontrolled salivation. The concentration of attention decreases, which subsequently leads to a decrease in intelligence.
Pseudobulbar syndrome. Reflexes of oral automatism
With this disease, the following reflexes are pronounced:
- grasping: with this reflex there is a strong grasp of the object, embedded in the hands;
- Proboscis: protrusion of the upper lip, folded into a tube, when touched by it;
- sucking: this reflex works when you touch the corners of your mouth;
- corneomandibular: when light hits the pupils, contralateral deviation of the lower jaw occurs;
- palmental: with pressure on the palm, the contraction of the chin muscle is observed.
Pseudobulbar syndrome. Causes of the disease
The causes of this disease are verya lot of. This syndrome can be both congenital and acquired due to severe brain damage. A child can be born with it for a number of reasons. It can be a birth trauma of the brain, an intrauterine transfer of encephalitis. But most often this syndrome occurs after a stroke, cerebral hemorrhage, brain injury. Pseudobulbar syndrome can occur as a result of multiple sclerosis, with damage to the brain vessels after the transfer of syphilis, tuberculosis, rheumatism and lupus erythematosus. Another pseudobulbar syndrome can occur with diffuse lesions of the brain.
Pseudobulbar syndrome. Treatment
Treatment directly depends on the stage of the disease. The earlier it is started, the better the chances of recovery. If months or years have passed since the disease, there is practically no chance of success. Improve the patient's condition by means that normalize lipid metabolism. Also prescribed drugs that improve the mastication. In the acute course of the disease, in-patient treatment is required, in which the patient is fed through a probe. A good result is the stem cells introduced into the body.</ p>