Person-centered approach in teachingimplies the concentration of attention and efforts of the teacher on the preservation, as well as the formation of a complete personality of the student. The specialist who relies on him will take care not only of developing the intellect, citizenship and sense of responsibility of the student, but also, to a greater extent, his spirituality, emotional, aesthetic, creative inclinations and opportunities for their maturation.
The personality-oriented approach has the following goal: to create conditions for the full-fledged establishment of the psychic functions of the individual. This is about:
- the ability of a person to make an informed choice;
- ability to reflect and evaluate life;
- the formation of the image of the "I";
- search for the meaning of your life and work;
- responsibility for actions and actions;
- autonomy of the individual from external influence.
The personality-oriented approach has a special relationship in the "student-teacher" system. In this system the schoolboy is the main character in the entire educational process.
The teacher is now turning from a "sourceinformation "and" controller "in the diagnostician and assistant, which ensures the development of personality and psyche of the student.The organization of this educational process assumes that he should guide the student.This is why this method is also known as personal developmental education.
Let us consider in more detail the principles and methods of such organization of the educational process.
First, the person-oriented approach implies that there should be an orientation not so much on education and upbringing as on the development of students.
Secondly, the teacher must take into account the individual characteristics of schoolchildren (age, physiological, psychological, intellectual).
Thirdly, when building the educational materialthe teacher needs to keep in mind the educational needs of the class, focusing on a different level of complexity in the program material, so that it is accessible and understandable to everyone.
Fourth, schoolchildren should be distributed according to special homogeneous groups, taking into account their knowledge, abilities and professional orientation.
Fifth, each child should be treated as a unique and unique personality.
Let's consider, for example, how a person-oriented approach is realized in teaching a foreign language. It is necessary to create a special educational environment in the classroom, which will include:
- organization and use of material of different types, content and form;
- use of technical equipment (projector and tape recorder) in the lessons;
- providing the student with freedom in choosing the way of performing tasks in order to relieve emotional tension due to fear of making mistakes in the actions taken;
- application of non-traditional forms of individual and group activities in order to activate the creativity of each child;
- creation of conditions for self-expression in collective and independent activities;
- attention to evaluation and analysisindividual ways of working that encourage the student to create not so much a result, but also a work process (it is necessary that the student can tell how he organized the work, what means he used, what he liked and what did not);
- special training of the teacher for the continuous implementation of such work in the classroom, as well as in the process of organizing a system of extracurricular lessons;
- the development and application of an individual training program that will model research (research) thinking;
- the organization of lessons in small groups on the basis of dialogue, imitating role play and training.