The Holy Roman Empire is a complex politicalUnion, which existed from 962 to 1806 and potentially represented the largest state in Central Europe, founded by the Emperor Otto I. At the peak of his heyday (in 1050), under Heinrich III, it contained German, Czech, Italian and Burgundian territories. She grew up from the East Frankish Kingdom, proclaiming herself the heiress of the Great Rome, in accordance with the medieval idea of "translatio imperii" ("the transition of the empire"). The Holy Roman Empire represented a conscious attempt to revive the state.
However, by 1600 it was left only a shadowformer glory. Her heart was Germany, which by this period represented a number of principalities, successfully succeeded in their independent position under the rule of the emperor, who never had the status of absolute. Therefore, from the end of the fifteenth century, it is more known as the Holy Roman Empire of the German nation.
The most important territories belonged to seventhe electors of the emperor (the king of Bavaria, the Margrave of Brandenburg, the Duke of Saxony, the Palatine of the Rhine and the three archbishops - Mainz, Trier and Cologne), who are referred to as the First Estate. The second consisted of indiscriminate princes, the third - from the leaders of 80 free imperial cities. Representatives of estates (princes, princes, lords, kings) were theoretically subject to the emperor, but each had sovereignty on his lands and acted as he saw fit, based on his own considerations. The Holy Roman Empire was never able to achieve the kind of political unification that existed in France, developing instead into a decentralized, limited electoral monarchy made up of hundreds of sub-blocks, principalities, counties, free imperial cities and other areas.
The emperor himself also owned land inInner, Upper, Lower and Front Austria, controlled Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia and Lusatia. The most significant area was the Czech Republic (Bohemia). When Rudolph II became emperor, he defined Prague as its capital. According to the testimony of contemporaries, he was a very interesting, intelligent, judicious person. However, unfortunately, Rudolph suffered from insanity attacks, developed from his propensity for depression. This strongly affected the government structure. More and more privileges of power were in the hands of Matthias, his brother, even though he had no authority over her. The German princes tried to take advantage of this problem, but as a result (by 1600) they not only did not join forces, but on the contrary, they split.
So, let us summarize what has been said. The main milestones of the political union of territories: the formation of the Holy Roman Empire occurred in 962. Otto, its founder, was crowned Pope in Rome. Since 1600, the power of the emperors was only nominal.
Although some of them tried to change theirposition, strengthen power positions, their attempts were prevented by the papacy and princes. The last was Franz II, who, under the pressure of Napoleon I, abandoned the title, thereby putting an end to her existence.</ p>