The aggressive policy of France in the late XVIII -the beginning of the XIX century marked the beginning of numerous French coalitions, including the states that were threatened with immediate danger from the French invaders. In most cases, Russia took part in anti-French coalitions, but the measure of the activity of the Russian Empire in the composition of such an alliance was different each time.
The first anti-French alliance
Anti-French coalition No. 1 was formed in connectionwith a deep crisis in France itself. Raising his political image, King Louis XVI declared war on Austria. Particularly cynical was the fact that the king arranged any outcome of military action. In case of victory, the authority of the king would be strengthened, as a result of the defeat of the leaders of the revolutionary movement would be weakened. The European government was seriously concerned about developments in France. Between 1791 and 1815 seven anti-French alliances were created. The anti-French alliance of the first and second convocation was aimed at overthrowing the republican system in France. The composition of the anti-French coalitions of subsequent years sought to defeat Napoleon.
War with Austria
Loudest of all about the beginning of the war screamed recentlyformed Girondist government. But in their desire to bring "peace to huts, and war to palaces" they clearly overdid it. France was sorely lacking money for military operations. Meanwhile, the German states were more than serious about declaring war. So the first French coalition was created. Austria and Prussia poured in it. The new regime began to pose a serious threat to European monarchical states. The Russian Empire was well aware of the seriousness of the danger. In 1793, the Russian Empire joined them - a convention was signed with England on mutual demands to assist each other in the struggle against France. After the death of Catherine II, Paul I terminated the agreement, explaining this by saying that Russia does not have the means to wage wars. Instead, Russian diplomats tried to limit France's victories in diplomatic ways.
The Second Anti-French Coalition
After the restoration of their own borders, Francebegan to claim dominance in the European region. In order to contain the young republic, a second French coalition was signed. Its most active members were Russia, England, Turkey, Sicily. After a number of naval victories under the leadership of Nelson and Ushakov, the Allies decided on military actions on land.
The subsequent coalitions no longer set as their goalrestoration of the monarchy in France and the overthrow of the republican system. The frightening successes of the French army led by Napoleon forced the European countries to seek new opportunities for creating defense alliances. The third anti-French coalition was exclusively defensive in nature. Participants were Russia, Sweden, England and Austria. Allied troops suffered defeat after defeat. The most devastating blow was the "Battle of Three Emperors" near Austerlitz, where the Allied forces were completely defeated.
The fourth and fifth anti-French coalitions are notwere able to restrain Napoleon's victorious advance against Europe. One by one capitulated the European states. Prussia ceased to exist, Austria lost a good part of its lands, and the Warsaw Duchy fell under the protectorate of Russia. The Napoleonic forces were entrenched in Egypt.
The Sixth Coalition arose after the military invasionNapoleon to Russia. The Anti-French Union united Russia, Sweden and Prussia among themselves. The main burden of military action fell to the share of the Russian Empire. Later England was joined by a number of smaller states. The coalition broke up in connection with the deposition of Napoleon.
The seventh and last anti-French coalitionarose in connection with an event known in history as "One hundred days of Napoleon". The coalition united almost all the major European countries. After the final defeat of Napoleon in the Battle of Waterloo, the coalition disintegrated, and more unions of this kind did not arise.</ p>