To date, the method of measuring ESR byWestergren is a reference. This technique was first applied in 1926 and is widely used in modern medicine in the process of diagnosing certain diseases, in particular for the detection of a hidden inflammatory process.
In modern medical practice, the methodthe measurement of erythrocyte sedimentation rate in a vertical tube is the simplest and most accessible diagnostic method. Such a blood test helps to determine the presence of inflammation, but it should be noted that this indicator is nonspecific and may vary depending on the influence of various factors.
The sedimentation of red blood cells is carried out inthree stages. First, the red blood cells descend to the bottom of the tube slowly and separately from each other. In the second stage, the red blood cells aggregate and form the so-called "coin pillars" - now they settle much faster. At the final stage, a large number of aggregates are formed - first their subsidence slows down, and then it stops altogether.
Thus, in a test tube, two layers are formed -below there are aggregated erythrocytes, and in the upper part plasma with leukocytes is collected. The ESR of Westergren can be estimated by measuring the height of the transparent plasma layer formed from above. This is measured in mm / hour.
How is ESR done in Westergren?
As already mentioned, this technique is available andeasy to conduct. To begin with, you need to dial into a special cylindrical tube of 0.5 ml of sodium citrate (this substance acts as an anticoagulant) and 2 ml of venous blood. Now the filled tube is placed vertically in a tripod and left for an hour. After the allotted time, it is necessary to measure the height of the formed plasma layer.
ESR for Westergren: which indicators are considered normal?
In fact, the rate of sedimentation of red bloodThe corpuscle directly depends on the age and sex of the patient. For example, the blood of newborns is characterized by a low content of globulin proteins, so the sedimentation rate is slow and is about 2 mm per hour. By the age of two, this indicator increases to 4-17 mm.
In men and boys older than 10 years, the ESR fluctuatesin the range from 2 to 10 mm. In women, the figure is higher - 2-15 mm per hour. If we talk about the results of the study of the blood of the elderly, then in women, ESR is 2 to 53 mm, and in the case of representatives of the stronger sex, 2-38 mm / hour.
Why the index of ESR by Westergren elevated?
Increased sedimentation rate of red blood cellsTaurus is usually associated with an increase in blood protein molecules, in particular fibrinogen, paraproteins and certain groups of globulins. Accordingly, any disease that causes such changes in blood composition can cause changes in ESR. Most often, this is due to the activity of the infection or the development of the inflammatory process. To the causes can be attributed the formation of malignant structures, anemia, poisoning with some toxins. ESR increases with pneumonia, heart attacks, liver and kidney diseases, bone injuries, diabetes and some other diseases of the endocrine system.
ESR by Westergren lowered: the causes
As a rule, the decrease in speed is due toblood thickening, as well as some other disorders. In particular, this phenomenon is often observed in patients with spherocytosis, polycythemia and sickle-cell anemia. To the causes include long-term fasting, a sharp decrease in muscle mass, and circulatory insufficiency. The rate of subsidence may be affected by the use of steroid drugs.</ p>