A crime is a guilty act(action or inaction), which constitutes a danger to society and is punishable in accordance with the criminal legislation of Russia. Thoughts, desires, intentions of a person that have not been applied in real life, can not be considered as such.

The Criminal Code of the Russian Federation provides for the following categories of crimes:

- A small weight - a dangerous act committedby negligence or intentionally. An example of this kind of crime may be the threat of bodily harm. The maximum imprisonment in this case can not exceed the time limit of two years. This period may be reduced, depending on the availability of mitigating circumstances.

- Of moderate severity - an act that provides for imprisonment for up to five years, committed intentionally or through negligence. An example of such a crime is theft of someone else's property.

- Severe crimes - acts committed by a personby negligence or intentionally. The maximum sentence in this case is ten years' imprisonment. An example of such an act may be theft, violation of traffic rules, which caused the death of more than two persons.

Separately, it is necessary to classify particularly seriouscrimes, always committed on the personal intent of the offender. The term of prison sentence for such guilty and dangerous for a society action can make from ten years and above, up to life imprisonment in custody. The death penalty in Russia, as a rule, does not apply.

This delineation of crimes by categoryis determined in turn by the type and size of the punishment. It is conducted taking into account such indicators as the nature of the danger of this act for society, the form of guilt. For example, a person who for the first time committed a crime of small gravity, in case of complete repentance and confession of guilt, can be completely released from criminal responsibility or convicted on probation. A citizen whose guilt is proven for a particularly grave crime, regardless of the presence of convictions, remorse, etc., will fully bear the punishment he deserves. The delineation of crimes by severity is necessary from a legal point of view. Punishment, for example, for petty theft can not be equated with such for murder.

In accordance with the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation, the category "particularly serious crimes" includes:

- murder committed in a particularly cruel way;

- causing serious harm to health;

- kidnapping;

- rape;

- human trafficking;

- violent actions against a minor;

- robbery in a particularly large amount;

- legalization of tangible property received during the commission of a crime;

- sabotage;

- receiving a bribe;

- attempted murder of a law enforcement officer.

In the category of "particularly serious crimes" alsocan be attributed to the mass destruction of a certain group of people on their racial or ethnic grounds (genocide), the mass destruction of the surrounding nature, flora and fauna, as well as the conduct of activities that can lead to an environmental disaster (ecocide).

In the jurisprudence of Russia there is a notionthe period of limitation, that is, the period of time that must elapse from the moment of the crime, if for some reason it remained undisclosed, as long as the criminal prosecution of the person committing the crime becomes impossible. For particularly serious crimes, a maximum limitation period of twenty years is provided. The countdown starts from the moment when the investigation began. For some crimes, there is no statute of limitations. For example, genocide. Unfortunately, as practice shows, the possibility of uncovering a crime committed several years ago is extremely small.

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