The first settlement on the site of a modern metropolisappeared in the Vll century BC. It was a small colony of Greek settlers, bearing the name of Byzantium, which was preserved for it until 330 AD, when Emperor Constantine renamed the city of New Rome and moved there the capital of the empire. Soon, however, the name of Constantinople was established outside the city, which was used in official documents until 1930.
History of Istanbul
Greeks never chose random places forconstruction of important facilities, and, obviously, a number of religious procedures had to be performed to establish a new city. Legends in the history of Istanbul are not the last place, and according to one of them, before building a new colony, people from the Greek region of Megarid turned to the Delphic oracle, and he indicated the place where Constantinople would subsequently appear.
However, in 330 on the site of the former Greekcolonies under the personal order of the emperor were launched large-scale works, the purpose of which was the construction of a beautiful city that would testify to the greatness of the Roman Empire and serve it as a worthy new capital.
Another legend says that the Emperor Constantinepersonally marked on the map the boundaries of the city, and on them was poured an earthen rampart, inside of which the construction began, attracting the best architects, artisans and artists.
Constantine and heirs
Of course, such a grandiose plan could not have beenfully realized during the life of the emperor, and the burden of construction lay also on his heirs. From the announcement of the celebration in honor of the consecration of the new city, we can conclude that by that date there was already a hippodrome in the city where performances of circus performers, artists and the chariot race that people loved so much were held.
Since Christianity was by then alreadythe official religion of the empire, in the city was installed a stele of porphyry dedicated to the Theotokos. It is worth noting that porphyry at that time was considered the most valuable of semiprecious stones. They were decorated with the emperor's chambers in the Great Palace of Constantinople, and the children born in these chambers wore the title of Porphyrogenitus and were considered legitimate heirs of the ruling emperor.
It was under Constantine l that suchimportant historical monuments, like the Sophia Cathedral in Istanbul, the history of which is almost one thousand seven hundred years, as well as the Cathedral of St. Irene, which is also of interest to lovers of antiquity.
Long Capital Years
Since its construction Constantinopleserved first as the capital of the Roman Empire, then the Byzantine, and after the Ottoman. Thus, more than a thousand six hundred years the city had a capital status, while Atatürk did not transfer the capital to Ankara, located in the center of the country.
However, after this, Constantinople preservedthe status of an important cultural and economic center. Istanbul remains today the largest city in Turkey, its population reaches fifteen million people. Through the city are important trade routes, both maritime and land.
Periodization of the history of the city
The whole history of Istanbul can be divided into severalimportant periods. If we take the renaming of Byzantium to Constantinople as the starting point, then the first period can be considered the years when the city was the capital of a single Roman Empire, that is, from 330 to 395th. The city was actively built and developed, and its population was largely Latin-speaking.
In the next period Constantinople isthe capital of a different empire - the Eastern Roman or, as it is customarily called in historical books, Byzantium. An important milestone in his history is the year 1204, when he was plundered by the Crusaders, who devastated the treasures and churches, looted the palaces and merchants' vaults. Fifty-seven years the city was under the administration of the Latin nobles until it was freed in 1261.
With the liberation of the city, somethe revival of the empire, but it was not a long one, and already in 1453 the history of Istanbul as a Greek city ends - it is captured by the Ottoman Turks. The last Byzantine emperor, Constantine Xl, perishes in the fire of a fire. The history of the empire is over.
The Ottoman period in the history of Istanbul begins May 29, 1453 and will last until 1923, when the Ottoman Empire will be liquidated and a young Turkish Republic will appear in its place.
Over 450 years of Ottoman rule, the city will survivethe ups and downs, more than once under its walls will be soldiers of foreign armies, including Russian. However, throughout history he will admire the palaces and Sultan's harems, beautiful mosques and magnificent markets, to which goods from all over the continent will flow.
During the whole time of the Ottoman dynasty in the city ruled29 sultans, each of which contributed to the development of the city. However, the most revered of them, of course, is Sultan Mehmed ll Fatih, who took the city, putting an end to the Byzantine Empire and beginning a new period in the Ottoman Empire.
Under Fatih, most of the Christian churches were converted into mosques, including St. Sophia. However, religious communities were not infringed, subject to payment of an additional tax on non-Muslims.
Istanbul in the 20th century
Approaching their sunset, the empire of the beginningagonize, and the delicate interethnic and interreligious balance has been shaken. A wave of pogroms against Christians, especially Armenians, swept across the country. The genocide that followed the pogroms led to the fact that the entire Armenian population of Istanbul left the city.
In 1918, the Ottoman Empire signed thethe Entente peace treaty, thus recognizing its defeat. From that moment the city was under occupation of the Western powers. It was divided into areas of responsibility between the British and the French, who administered Istanbul and the straits on whose banks the military were stationed.
In 1923, the occupation was completed, foreignmilitary forces were withdrawn from the city, and a year later a new nationalist government abolished the Caliphate, expelling all the representatives of the Osmanov family from the country.
The capital of the new state is located in Ankara,which was least threatened by foreign intervention. However, Istanbul retains the status of an important cultural and economic center to this day. Retelling the history of Istanbul briefly, we can add that in this city is still the residence of the Patriarch of Constantinople - one of the most revered Christian priests.</ p>