Forever in the history of Russia Alexander II will remainas the liberator of serfs. The reforms of Alexander the second have always been democratic and gradual. Do not forget that the gradualness of reforms is the secret of the rule of a literate monarch. And Alexander knew the second secret in full.
Alexandra II was still from her youthPeasant reform. However, he could begin to do it only after he took the throne. What were the reasons for this zealous desire of the monarch to release the serfs?
1) Alexander the second, as a wise and competentthe ruler, understood that serfdom was hampered by the state. From the use of any slaveholding elements, the European world long ago refused. Russia continued to hesitate, fearing to carry out reactionary reforms. In the opinion of Alexander the second, the peasant reform was supposed to eliminate at the root all the reasons for Russia's lagging behind the world powers.
2) Alexander was deeply convinced thatThe presence of serfdom in the country has a bad effect on Russia's defense capability. Serfdom led to a downgrade of Russia's ranking among European powers. Moreover, many European monarchs considered it beneath their dignity to conduct business with Russia. Just like in the days of Ancient Rus, when Vladimir could not get the hands of the Princess of Constantinople, just because he was a pagan.
3) Do not forget that the new monarchwas brought up in the spirit of enlightenment and democracy. The creative intelligentsia long ago advocated the abolition of serfdom. The teacher of Alexander the second in youth was Vasily Zhukovsky himself, who was the leader of the creative intelligentsia of the XIX century. It is Zhukovsky considered to be Pushkin's teacher. According to Alexander the second, peasant reform should have a positive impact on the spiritual component of Russian society.
The beginning for the reform was laid in 1857,when the monarch created the Secret Commission. The secret commission had to work out a plan according to which the abolition of serfdom should become the most fluid and inconspicuous.
The main problem for the monarch wasopposition of interests of serfs and nobility. The nobility was sincerely sure that the abolition of serfdom to the country was useless. They did not want to part with their lands and with their peasants.
Serfs, on the contrary, believed that the peasantreform must completely restore their freedom, in addition, also bring land on which you could conduct business. It was impossible to please both.
February 19, 1861 there was a significantan event for all of Russia - serfdom was abolished. Across the country, the decrees of Alexander II were read in churches. According to this decree, all serfs received freedom and independence from their former landowners. Each peasant received a land for personal use. However, this land was still considered the possession of the landowner. The peasants had to redeem their plots from the landowner, seeking independence of the estates.
Thus, the abolition of serfdom in 1861forever changed Russia. However, neither the landlords nor the peasants were satisfied. The landlords believed that they were being robbed, taking away legitimate lands. The peasants were sure that the former serfdom was replaced by a new one, which became known as work offs. As a result, Alexander was the second to be condemned almost in all layers of society. After 20 years, Alexander finally lose credibility among the masses. In 1881, he was killed by conspirators from among the people's circles, which were particularly popular in Russia in the late 19th century.
In spite of everything, Alexander the second went intothe history of Russia as a great figure, an inimitable reformer, a far-sighted politician. It is thanks to the active reforming activity of Alexander the second that modern Russia has such a face.</ p>