In the literature of the leader of the Roman Empirealmost always called "the Roman emperor." However, this is not entirely correct. The fact is that the word "emperor" is a title, a very honorable title, which was given to the generals after victories. Title does not mean a position.
Since the time of Guy Julius Caesar, the head of statealways received the title of emperor. In this case, the title was appropriated to other people. However, the "Roman emperor" was originally a military leader, a military leader who celebrated the triumph of the victory in battle. Subsequently, the title began to apply more to the ruler of the state. In this regard, the country itself was called an empire.
All the Roman emperors were different people. Some were wise rulers, others became famous tyrants, others could behave like real fools, the fourth made any innovations, sometimes not related to government. For example, Adrian became the first emperor to grow a beard. Until then, a shaven chin was considered a rule of good taste.
According to many historians, it was during the reign of the emperors that the Roman state reached the heights of territorial and military power.
Often contenders for the throne clashed. The disputes were resolved, as a rule, on the battlefield. In some cases, the Roman emperor reached his goal. However, not every ruler subsequently managed to maintain his position at the head of the state. So, some rulers could be on the throne for thirty years, and others could not hold out even two months.
It should be noted that the country did not have a clearschemes for the transfer of power. The Roman emperor appointed his son as successor or (if there was no direct heir) chose the applicant from his closest associates. This imposed a fairly serious responsibility on the candidate.
The first Roman emperor, Guy Julius CaesarOctavian (from 63 BC to 14 CE) was the adopted son of Guy Julius Caesar. "Augustus" is a title that was appropriated only to the gods. Subsequently, this title began to wear and the Roman emperors. For the first emperor, the title "Augustus" became the second name. Subsequently, the descendants began to call him Augustus Octavian or simply Augustus. It should be noted that this ruler did not want to be called a dictator. August Octavian became a trailer (the first citizen), although the power in the state was boundless.
For 400 years in the Roman Empire, several dynasties were in power. But only two of them, Caesars and Antonians, more than others contributed to the development and strengthening of the state.
The "golden age" of the Roman Empire is the erathe reign of the Antonians. In the state, power was transferred mainly to the adopted successor. In the year 98, the best Roman emperor Trajan (Mark Ulpius) ascended to the throne. This ruler was famous for his justice. He strictly followed the observance of the law in the country, helped the poor. During his reign, Italy began to provide herself with bread. Thus, the country no longer depends on supplies from Egypt.
At the end of the first century,the Praetorian Guard. It could overthrow or even kill at its discretion an unwanted ruler. In the Roman Empire, by the second century, several armies were formed, who could choose their own emperors.
In recent years, the staterapidly weakened. In addition to the fact that the Western Roman Empire could not protect itself from external enemies, devastation dominated the country. Representatives of the government, officials, emperors plundered the people. Often locals, fleeing from the cruelty and injustice of their landowners, flee to the service of the barbarians.
The last Roman Emperor, a young Romulus Augustul, was displaced in 467 by the leader of the barbarian tribes. From that moment the Western Roman Empire fell, together with it the ancient era ended.