The study of legal and political institutions,which exist in Russia in the process of historical development, is engaged in the history of the state and law. It considers legal and political phenomena in order to establish the patterns of trends in the development of law and the state. In general, the history of the state and law is like historical and legal science. The subject of study is considered to be changes related to development, change of types and forms of state bodies, state and law.
The very history of the state and law is very similar toscientific theory of state and law, both sciences study the stages and the emergence of the state and law. But, unlike the theory of state and law, the history of the state and law reveals all the patterns, studies all the features of states in Russia.
The main tasks of historystates and rights are - studying the experience of the past, studying the development of the state and law and predicting possible developments. Methods in this science are used and general philosophical (dialectical), and obschesotsiologicheskie, and can be specific. Specific methods are divided into 3 methods:
- they are chronological methods that study phenomena in different times and in chronological sequences;
- comparative methods that compare the development of the state and the rights of certain peoples with other peoples
- system methods that consider historical and legal phenomena with other different phenomena.
History of state and law of different countriesis unique. For example, the history of the state and law of Germany by the beginning of the XIX century had in its composition about 300 states. All these states were subject to the emperor, as well as the imperial diet, the peasants were serfs. Compared with the concept of the history of the state and the law of France, Germany was at a stage of social and economic backwardness. Then the formation of the German unified empire began, where the Union Diet was in charge of the board. Year after year, the history of the state and law of Germany was improved, there were wars, during which other monarchies ruled the country. Then political parties were carried out, the German Democratic Republic appeared. In conclusion, it can be said that the history of the state and law in Germany has reached its climax with every century. And today Germany is one of the most developed countries.
As for the concept of the history of state and lawFrance, there is also a deep history with a multitude of legal systems. The French revolution led the population to a state of crisis, the legal system in those years was conservative and archaic. After the revolution, the law became uncoordinated and disjointed, after several years trade and civil law, labor and social legislation developed actively. France can be safely attributed to a mixed form of government, the president is in charge of the country's government, and parliamentary control is steadily and continuously monitoring his work. The legal system of France ensures the stable development of the state.
Despite the fact that the history of state and lawmany countries have not experienced the best of times, we can say that to date, all the legal laws of all countries meet moral and spiritual needs.
In the history of the state and law of Russia, you canto distinguish several valuable stages - the creation of Soviet law and the state in 1917 - 1918, Soviet law and the state in foreign years of civil war and military inventory in 1918 - 1920, during the NEP in 1921 and at the end of the 1920s, during the period the breakdown of indigenous social relations in the late 1920s and until 1941, during the Great Patriotic War in 1941-1945 and Soviet law and the state in the years after the war.</ p>