Non-ferrous metallurgy refers to the heavy industryindustry. It deals with the extraction, processing and enrichment of ore of non-ferrous metals only. Here we can distinguish three main areas: aluminum, copper and nickel industry. This industry has its own characteristics - economic, geographic and others. Let's consider it in more detail both within the country and on a world scale.
A feature of this industry,is the non-profitability of the transportation of non-ferrous metals for the purpose of processing and enriching them. Therefore, non-ferrous metallurgy enterprises are located as close as possible to the place of their extraction. The extracted ore contains a small part of non-ferrous metals. This determines the location of processing enterprises. It is inappropriate to transport a large amount of "empty" ore. This is a territorial feature that non-ferrous metallurgy has.
This industry has a significant impact on theindustrial power of the country. These metals are necessary in the field of mechanical engineering and other fields of the economy. Nonferrous metallurgy is a factor that ensures the development of scientific and technological progress.
In addition to the main industries, it is divided intoLead-zinc, tungsten-molybdenum, titanomagnesium, nickel-cobalt industry. Also here includes the production of rare metals, hard alloys and precious metals.
There are three main stages of the process of obtaining non-ferrous metals:
1. Extraction of raw materials and its enrichment.
2. Redistribution of ore at metallurgical plants.
3. Processing of non-ferrous metals.
The development of modern science requires that colormetallurgy increased its volumes. For new developments, more stable and stronger alloys are needed. They are dominated by titanium and aluminum. The obtained alloys are used in the rocket, aircraft industry, in the field of space innovations, shipbuilding and other fields of engineering.
Copper is used both in pure form and in the formalloys with other components. For example, when it is combined with tin, bronze is obtained, with zinc brass, aluminum with duralumin, and nickel-nickel.
Noble metals are used in jewelry and in the manufacture of various equipment. Nonferrous metallurgy is widely developed in Russia.
The copper industry is characterized by a combination ofextracting and processing enterprises. This is due to the low concentration of copper in the mined ore. A lot of enterprises and complexes for the extraction and processing of copper ore are located in the Urals. There are also enterprises for the production of cobalt, tin and other metals.
Copper and nickel are produced in Norilsk in the Tanakh deposit area.
In terms of gold mining, Russia ranks 6th in the world,and on the explored reserves it is second only to South Africa. There are friable, ore and complex deposits. Fertile deposits are most favorable for production, but their reserves run low. Therefore, recently, other ore mines have been developed.
The main place for gold mining is Bodaibo. There mines are being developed jointly with Australian companies. In the Far East, about two-thirds of all gold is mined, about 5% in the Urals, and one-fourth in Eastern Siberia.
As for the extraction of diamonds, Russia also occupies one of the leading places. Their main deposits are in Yakutia. There are also deposits in the Arkhangelsk, Irkutsk region and the Krasnoyarsk Territory.
The world's non-ferrous metallurgy is also richis diverse. Here the main role is played by the occurrence of the rock, the features of the deposits, the conditions of ore extraction and ecology. The main deposits of nonferrous ore are located in Australia, South Africa, Guinea, India, Chile, Peru, Venezuela and other countries. Many countries cooperate in this field with the aim of increasing the efficiency and quality of developments in non-ferrous metallurgy.</ p></ p>