The period of education and upbringing of a preschooler isthe foundation from which the personality of the child begins to form, the basis for building his successful future. The training program for preschool children should cover three areas: mental development, moral and physical education.
Mental development of the preschooler
It is determined by the degree:
- possession of a pencil and a brush;
- the ability to write and read;
- the ability to make short retellings and memorize small poems;
- knowledge of numbers (in direct and reverse order), the ability to produce simple arithmetic operations;
- knowledge of basic geometric shapes;
- the ability to determine time;
- possession of initial ideas about the world.
From how the child can behave inteam of peers and adults, as far as he is ready to learn, his future school life largely depends. Therefore, the pre-school education program should be designed in such a way as not to lose sight of this aspect.
As Dr. Komarovsky said: "A happy child is first and foremost a healthy child. And only then - who can read and play the violin. " Therefore, children's educational programs are inconceivable without elements of physical culture.
Teaching children 2-3 years
This age is characterized by intensiveacquaintance of the child with the surrounding world, flowers and forms of objects, their size and texture. The kid is capable of expressing emotions, reacting to his successes and failures, communicating with other children and adults. During this age period, do not zealous in teaching the child letters and numbers, because all this for him are incomprehensible hieroglyphs that do not cause any interest. Also, the effectiveness of studying foreign languages will be much higher at a later age.
A tutorial for children should beis aimed at knowledge of the surrounding world with the help of the senses: sight, hearing, smell and touch. Scientists have proved that success in mastering the reading skills depends on the ability to feel the world. The program of preschool education of children 2 and 3 years is based on the development of fine motor skills. The point is that the child's fingers contain a large number of receptors sending impulses to the brain regions, which are simultaneously responsible for the consistency of the finger movements and for the development of speech. For these purposes, the finger exercises, the picking up of small objects (safe, of course), the game with cubes and balls of various sizes, exercises with cloth flaps of various textures, games in the "ladushki", "magpie-crow", modeling of plasticine and so Further.
Teaching children 4-5 years
This age is perfect forgently begin learning the child letters and numbers. Now the kid is already able to analyze the properties of objects, to purposefully influence them, he is more calm, more diligent and better organized. If a child can play enthusiastically in developing games for 10-15 minutes - go ahead! Age 4-5 years is ideal and in order to give his child in a circle or sports section. By this time, the physical development of the musculoskeletal system of the child allows him to successfully master the basics of swimming, choreography, martial arts and so on.
If you notice a child's tendency tolinguistics, studying a foreign language or visiting a theater group will be an excellent solution for the development of these abilities. Creative children, modeling, fine arts, and vocals will perfectly suit them. However, if the child does not know how to focus attention, consciously carry out developmental tasks, is impatient and reacts violently to his own failures, one should wait a little with reading and visiting the circles.
Learn to concentrate your child will helpco-production of hand-made articles. Begin with simple details, so that the result will be rapid, gradually complicating the task. In the course of the work it is important to show the kid that any failure can be corrected. In this process, you can easily enter the study of the alphabet, numbers and animals. Having shown a little imagination, you can kill several birds with one stone. For the development of fine motor skills, it is advisable to use such exercises as passing a pen through the labyrinth, stroke and coloring of pictures, weaving, modeling and much more.
Teaching children 6-7 years
Modern physiologists, psychologists, educators andspeech therapists agree that this period is most favorable for development of attention, perception, memory and thinking of the child. Physiologically the baby is already ready for developmental training, and he has a desire to learn. That is why a six-year-old child can sometimes bring his parents to white heat with their numerous "why". To brush aside your inquisitive child or confine yourself to superficial answers is like depriving a tree of life-giving moisture. So be patient and find the full information to satisfy the curiosity of your baby. At this age it's time to teach the child an account, a letter, the ability to determine the time by the hour, explain to him the basics of geography and astronomy. The 6-year training program for children already provides for the transition to organized forms of employment.
Correct actions of parents
So, the program of preschool education of eachThe child should include exercise games for the development of sensory perception (development of sense organs), speech, mental activity, physical skills, the education of curiosity, and the formation of common elementary ideas about the world around him. Successfully solve this task helps all kinds of institutions of preschool education. Kindergartens, preschool groups and specialized educational institutions not only use effective programs and unique methods for preparing children for school, but also have additional courses in their arsenal, for example, English language teaching programs.
Undoubtedly, the training of the child in the team hasa number of advantages over individual lessons: here skills of correct interaction with peers are developed, discipline, concept of responsibility, ability to solve difficult situations are developed. Interactive training programs, as well as the work of psychologists, will undoubtedly help the child in the future to adapt more easily in the new school conditions and move quickly to the position of "I am a schoolboy".
Of course, every kid is individual, and to achievedesired results without assistance is also possible. If you have firmly decided that your independent studies with the child will be no worse than a training program for children in preschools, just consider the age-specific features of the child's psychology and adhere to certain rules.
Recommendations for parents
- Training is conducted in a game form and usefor this every opportunity: read the baby, talk, think out games together, look for objects of the same color for a walk, show him interesting natural phenomena, support the curiosity in the child, teach him to operate with time.
- Be sure to provide your child withpeers. It should be systematic joint games at playgrounds, in the park, arranging kids competitions, quizzes, relay race. All this will be the first skills of the child's behavior within the collective.
- Go to learning the child reading is onlywhen his oral speech is sufficiently developed. Start again with the game forms, gradually moving to more complex ones. Remember that in this matter, it is not so much the duration that is important, as the frequency and consistency of the lessons. Literature for reading should correspond to the age and individual characteristics of the child - read what he is interested in knowing. If a child's speech contains many errors in the syllabic structure of words or their coordination, has pronounced pronunciation defects, then your initial task is to address the speech therapist.
- In no case can not abruptly translate a childon the school regime: to deprive him of a quiet hour, to arrange home lessons with notebooks, calls and changes. All that provide for educational programs for schoolchildren, in the upbringing of the preschool child is not only unnecessary, but can also cause some harm - being forcibly involved in adulthood, a child may lose the desire and interest in school life.