Kidney diseases often occuris asymptomatic and is often detected by changes in urinalysis. Kidney disease is studied by nephrology. In recent years, she has significantly outstripped other disciplines, such as cardiology, gastroenterology, etc. Doctors-nephrologists have introduced modern methods of treating kidney diseases and chronic kidney failure, hemodialysis and kidney transplantation. A jump in the development of nephrology produced a kidney biopsy. With her help, it became possible to make a diagnosis after studying the structure of the pathology of the kidney tissue.
Kidney disease can not be studied, notsystematizing them into groups. The modern classification includes glomerulonephritis (glomerulonephritis, nephrosis and amyloidosis), tubulointerstitial nephritis (pyelonephritis, hereditary tubulopathies), associated kidney diseases (amyloidosis, kidney damage in diabetes, gout, myeloma nephropathy), vascular diseases (atherosclerosis, vascular anomaly, arterial hypertension, etc. .). Diseases are also divided into two large groups. One group includes kidney disease with bilateral organ damage. In this case, there are pathological changes in the entire body. This group includes nephritis, nephrosclerosis. The second group of diseases includes pathological processes in which only one kidney is affected and its excretory function does not suffer much. They include various nephritis - inflammation of the tissue of the organ, which is acute and chronic.
The most common kidney diseases
Glomerulonephritis, is an immunoallergicdefeat of the kidneys, mainly their vessels. Runs acutely or chronically. It develops more often after suffering angina, influenza, scarlet fever. In the occurrence of the disease is often involved streptococcus, the provoking factor may be hypothermia, glitches in the immune system. Usually after the transferred infection, about a month there is a latent period in which there is a change in the reactivity of the organism, the formation of antibodies to the pathogen. These immune complexes are deposited on the membrane of the glomerular vessels, causing vasculitis. The disease has three main symptoms: the appearance of edema, increased pressure and urinary syndrome. With loss of protein and red blood cells.
Pyelonephritis - the presence of infection in the kidney parenchyma,lohanka. The disease can be acute and chronic in nature. The cause of pyelonephritis is often an E. coli, staphylococcus, Proteus. The causative agent penetrates through the blood or lymph, as well as the ascending pathway in infections of the bladder. The disease contributes to the retention of urine in adenoma, tumors and kidney stones. Pyelonephritis is interstitial, serous and purulent. This disease is characterized by high fever, pain in the kidney, dysuric phenomena, intoxication, changes in the urine.
Polycystic kidney disease is a disease, ofteninherited, is innate. With it, the kidneys form cysts, which can gradually increase. Cysts can be single and multiple. Along with the kidneys, cysts can also appear in the liver. Large cysts can squeeze the parenchyma, nag and tear, leading to bleeding. Initially, the disease for a long time is asymptomatic, and finding a cyst is an accidental finding. With extensive cystic lesions, malaise, headaches, heaviness in the lower back, arterial hypertension, renal failure.
Renal stone disease is characterized bystone formation in the kidneys. The reason for this is a disturbed metabolism of phosphorus and calcium, oxalic acid. The disease can be detected by accident, by examination or when there is pain in the lower back or kidney colic. To inflame the disease is characterized by severe pain in the lower back, along the course of the ureters, the lower abdomen. There may be dysuric phenomena, hematuria, an increase in temperature. The pain increases with shaking, walking.
Prevention of kidney disease.
Many kidney diseases are a complicationinfectious and viral diseases (angina, influenza, etc.). Therefore, it is important to fully cure the infection, maintain bed rest when sick, do not overcool. After the transferred infection, heavy loads are contraindicated.
It is important to control blood pressure,timely treatment of diseases of internal organs. To prevent stone formation, you need proper nutrition, a diet with a restriction of certain foods and sufficient fluid intake. Once a year, you need to take blood and urine tests.
With the already existing kidney diseases, it is important that they do not go into chronic kidney diseases, whose treatment can be problematic.
Treatment of kidney diseases is prescribed by a nephrologist. Prescribed medications depend on the disease. When inflammatory lesions apply antibacterial drugs, uroantiseptic, phytotherapy, disaggregants. In the treatment of an attack, colic uses anesthetics, antispasmodics, antibiotics. Treatment of glomerulonephritis means a complex of drugs that suppress the activity and pathological effect of immune complexes, normalize blood pressure, prevent anemia, restore diuresis.