In modern medicine, intestinal obstructionis considered one of the most common diseases of the abdominal cavity. This disease is accompanied by a disruption in the movement of the contents of the intestine as a result of compression, blockage or temporary disruption of the peristalsis.
Intestinal obstruction: causes and classification
Such a disease can be classified, based on the cause of its development. It is accepted to distinguish three types of obstruction - mechanical, vascular and dynamic. Let us consider them in more detail.
1. Mechanical obstruction - this type of disease is associated with a wide variety of external and internal causes. For example, the intestinal cavity can be clogged from within with calico stones, tumors, and also foreign bodies that somehow got inside the body. In addition, the obstruction can be the result of squeezing the intestine from the outside with cysts, tumors, blood clots, etc. Intestinal obstruction in children in most cases is due to the formation of adhesions or invaginations.
2. Functional (dynamic) obstruction - such a disease is a malfunction in the nervous regulation of the muscles of the intestinal wall, which results in either severe spasm or complete paralysis. Spasmodic obstruction in most cases occurs when poisoning with certain substances (poisons, salts of heavy metals). Paralysis of the intestinal wall can develop with acute appendicitis, pancreatitis, and also after surgery on the organs of the abdominal cavity.
3. Vascular obstruction of the intestine - a disease that occurs with thrombosis of the veins and arteries of the intestinal wall.
Indications of an intestinal obstruction
The main symptom of such a disease, of course, is a strong, dull pain, which from time to time intensifies and has a cramping character.
Patients, as a rule, also complain of bloating, constipation and other problems with the stool, as well as increased formation and accumulation of gases. Patients also suffer from vomiting with stagnant contents.
Intestinal obstruction: methods of diagnosis and treatment
When suspected of having a disease, it is necessaryimmediately deliver the person to the hospital. After a general examination and palpation of the abdomen, the doctor can already suspect the presence of obstruction. Further, various studies are carried out, including laboratory tests, X-rays and ultrasound examinations.
As for the methods of treatment, they directlydepend on the cause. For example, if the obstruction was caused by blockage of vessels, poisoning or other infectious disease, then first of all you need to treat it. At the same time, patients are prescribed anesthetics. In addition, the reception of drugs that stimulate normal muscle work is shown. It is also necessary to remove the symptoms of dehydration if they are present.
If we talk about mechanical obstruction, then inIn most cases, surgical intervention is necessary. During surgery, doctors remove spikes or foreign bodies. In some cases, partial excision of the intestine is carried out.
Bowel obstruction and its consequences
For most patients, the treatment ends up quite successfully, but only on condition of timely treatment in the hospital and proper selection of treatment.
If treatment has not been carried out, thenobstruction leads to very serious complications. For example, when the parts of the intestine are isolated, tissue necrosis starts, which in turn leads to the development of infection. Quite often, at such a confluence of circumstances, peritonitis begins to develop - an inflammation of the abdominal cavity, which is difficult to treat.</ p>