Higher nervous activity (GNI), types andSteadiness is the balance of excitation and inhibition, that is, the relationship between these forces. Taking into account the ratio of the forces of the inhibitory and excitatory processes, one can distinguish balanced and unbalanced types, that is, processes can be either equally strong, or one will prevail over another.
Nervous processes are so mobile, as far asquickly cells of the cerebral cortex change from the process of excitation to the process of inhibition and vice versa. That is, the higher activity of the nervous system can be labile (mobile) or inert (inactive).
Types of IRR according to Pavlov
Pavlov, on the basis of studies carried out on animals and humans, was able to distinguish four clearly manifested types of activity of the nervous system:
1. Choleric type - strong, unbalanced, excitable.
2. Sanguine - strong, mobile, balanced.
3. Phlegmatic - strong, inert, balanced.
4. Melancholic - weak.
Information received as a result of theexperiments on animals, and apply to humans. But it is worth noting that the physiologist Pavlov investigated the types of higher nervous activity and in humans under clinical conditions.
Temperament according to Pavlov
Restraint and dynamism of nervous processescharacterizes the types of activity of the nervous system of people, which are the physical basis of their temperaments. Specifically, higher nervous activity (types of temperament) manifests itself in behavior. And this is not only the manner of man's behavior, but also the sides of the psyche that make themselves felt in cognitive activity, in the actions and feelings of man.
Higher nervous activity (types of temperament)manifest themselves in the functioning of signaling systems and their interaction. But at the same time, human behavior can be diverse not only due to the physiological basis, but also through a system of conditional, temporary connections that are formed in the course of human activity.
Higher nervous activity (types of temperament)affects only the characteristics of people's behavior and activities. In addition, the type of the human nervous system can change in the course of life, since it depends on the effects to which a person is exposed. Also types depend on training and education. Very often the temperament changes with age.
Any type of nervous activity, like anytemperament, you can give socially important properties of personality. Types can not be evaluated positively or negatively, as each of them has its own pluses and minuses. For example, a choleric is more energetic than a phlegmatic in actions and speed of reaction, but the phlegmatic is more reserved and cooler. For an example of the positive qualities of various temperaments, one can cite the responsiveness of a sanguine person, the slowness of a phlegmatic, the vigor of a choleric person, the stability of a melancholic.
But on the other hand higher nervous activity,types of temperament - this is often also undesirable for a person's properties. Sanguine temperament, for example, under certain conditions can lead to a tendency to "scatter", phlegmatic - can determine indifference and indifference to the surrounding and so on. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the negative and positive aspects of temperament and be able to control them, which is the main goal of education.</ p>