Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disease, in which absolutely all kinds of metabolism are violated as a result of insufficient pancreatic hormone production of the insulin hormone.
Diagnosis of diabetes should take into accountmany factors affecting its development, the main of which are heredity and overeating, especially the excess in the diet of carbohydrates, which are easily digested. The fact is that blood sugar irritates those cells that produce insulin. If its level is constantly increased as a result of overeating, the functions of these cells are gradually depleted.
Often the detection and diagnosis of diabetes mellitusoccurs after the defeat of the pancreas. And it does not matter the nature of pancreatitis: it is inflammatory, traumatic, vascular or other.
Sometimes the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus becomes possible after the appearance of symptoms associated with mental, nervous overload, with shocks, with infectious processes in the body.
Since the disease is of two types, differential diagnosis of diabetes mellitus must necessarily be carried out, helping to exclude one of them and confirm the second.
According to statistics, about 90% of patients suffer from diabetes2 types. Some symptoms allow it to differentiate even before the results of laboratory tests of blood and urine of the patient become known. These include: age exceeding the forty-year boundary; gradual onset; independence from the time of year; stable flow.
Further symptoms due to which it is possiblethe correct diagnosis of diabetes mellitus is the release of sugar along with urine and an increase in its content in the blood. Glycosuria and hyperglycemia are caused by loss of tissues (as a result of the inability of the liver and muscles to convert the sugar that comes to them into glycogen because of insulin deficiency), the ability to metabolize sugar and convert it to a source of energy. It is manifested by an unceasing thirst and the allocation of a large amount of urine (sometimes more than six liters per day). Its specific gravity is high because of the sugar content in it. Also, the patient is constantly itching, especially in the perineal zone, the skin, which is already prone to pustular inflammation. There are violations of sexual function.
Absence of treatment or its incorrect courseleads to the progression of the disease and the defeat of the peripheral nerves, which is manifested by pain in the lower and upper limbs. Then the vessels of the ocular retina change and the kidney glomeruli are affected, respectively, visual and renal impairments occur. The development of atherosclerosis and the progression of its manifestations is also often promoted by diabetes mellitus.
The disease, which revealed itself for the first time, requireshospitalization for the purpose of examination and the appointment of adequate treatment that is maintained throughout the life of the patient. From this moment he must be under constant supervision of a doctor, preferably acquainted with the history of the disease, etc. The treatment is not only in taking medication, injecting insulin, but also in observing a certain diet.
Diet therapy for diabetes is neededregardless of the form of the disease. Moreover, with a light form it is enough to do without drugs and injections. The main thing - to limit carbohydrates. They should not account for more than half of all food intake. The amount of carbohydrates helps determine the attending physician, taking into account the weight of the patient, the absence or presence of obesity, the general course of diabetes, the nature of human activity, and its energy consumption. During the remission period, the amount of fat should not exceed 25% of the volume of food consumed per day. During an exacerbation they are excluded completely, in order not to provoke the development of a diabetic coma. Proteins should be 20% of the total volume of food.
It should not be forgotten that rational, moderate nutrition is not only a means of maintaining the patient's condition, but also the main means of preventing diabetes.</ p>