Biochemistry of blood (the norm is presented in a special table) is a method of laboratoryA study aimed at assessing the performance of internal organs and determining the lack of trace elements in the human body. This analysis is used in various branches of medicine, from therapy to gynecology.

It is important here that the blood test allowsto determine malfunctions in the work of organs at a time when there are no external symptoms yet, and their structure has not suffered, that is, when the disturbances are of a functional nature.

When the biochemistry of blood is carried out (normsare determined by the table), the patient takes 5-10 milliliters of venous blood (in the elbow joint area), where the main components are determined, according to which the state of his health is assessed.

The given analysis allows to carry out researches of following indicators: proteins, enzymes, carbohydrates, lipids, pigments, and also vitamins, inorganic substances and nitrogenous low-molecular substances.

In medicine, there are certain norms of biochemistryblood, presented in the number of indicators that must be in the blood of a person of a certain sex and age category. That is, for a certain age category and a certain gender, there are indicators of the norm. These norms are established indicators of healthy people, so any deviations from them are considered as symptoms of various disruptions in the work of the body, in particular its systems and organs.

Let's consider in more detail such method of research as blood biochemistry (norm and deviations for men and women), in particular, each of its indicators.

1. Carbohydrates (fructose, glucose). This indicator depends on the sugar content in the blood. Normally it is considered: glucose - from 3,5 to 5,5 mmol / l for women and men, fructosamine - from 205 to 285 μmol / l.

Biochemistry of the blood can detect such adisease, like diabetes and various endocrine system diseases. Thus, an increase in the level of glucose may indicate the development of diabetes mellitus, and may also occur with thyrotoxicosis, acromegaly, emotional stress, Cushing syndrome, pancreatitis, or pancreatic tumors.

Lowering the glucose level may indicate fasting, tumor development, impaired functions of the endocrine glands, as well as poisoning, galactosemia, etc.

2. Pigments (bilirubin - common and direct). The norm is usually considered: bilirubin - from 5 to 20 μmol / l, direct bilirubin - from 0 to 3.5 μmol / l.

This indicator makes it possible to identifycause of jaundice, as well as assess the severity of the disease. Increased bilirubin may indicate the development of cancer, hepatitis, cirrhosis, cholecystitis.

3. Lipids (cholesterol, triglyceride). Biochemistry of blood (norm): cholesterol - from 3 to 6 mmol / l., Triglycerides - depending on the age, the indices can vary. Thus, for women from 0.34 to 2.9 mmol / l, and for men from 0.40 to 2.71 mmol / l.

Changes in these indicators may indicate the development of hepatitis, obesity, atherosclerosis, diabetes, alcoholism, liver pathology.

4. Inorganic substances, vitamins. The norm is potassium - from 4 to 5.5 mmol / l, sodium - from 36 to 145 mmol / l, and calcium - from 2 to 2.5 mmol / l. Chlorine - from 98 to 107 mmol / l., As well as phosphorus - from 1.5 to 2 mmol / l, and iron - from 7.16 to 30.43 mmol / l. and magnesium - from 0.65 to 1.05 mmol / l.,

Various abnormalities can indicate the development of osteoporosis, diabetes mellitus, cirrhosis, heart failure, alcoholism, and so on.

5. Nitrogenous substances (urea, as well as uric acid and creatinine). Biochemistry of blood (norm): urea - from 2.5 to 6.4 mmol / l, uric acid - from 150 to 350 μmol / l, creatinine - 53-97 μmol / l (women), 62-115 μmol / l (male).

Any deviation from the norm can be considered as indicators of impaired renal function, urinary tract, toxicosis of pregnant women and others.

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