An emergency incident (PE) is calleda state, as a result of which any mechanical or other effect appears on any object. An example of this can be a violation of the normal conditions of existence in a certain territory or water area. Such changes interfere with people's activities. In addition, there is a threat to their health and comfortable living conditions. The property of the population receives damage, and the management of the national economy and the surrounding natural environment are also violated.
Sources of emergency situations
Under the sources it is customary to call anya natural phenomenon, an accident or an industrial accident. Also the term "emergency incident" combines infectious diseases of people, animals and plants. In addition, if a mass means of destruction is used, its effect can be called precisely this case.
Classification of emergencies
Emergency situations are classified bya large number of symptoms. The most common are the variants by origin. They are divided into man-caused, anthropogenic and natural. Also, emergency situations are broken down into the types and types of events that underlie the incident.
In addition, they are classified by scalespread, the complexity of the situation itself and the severity of the results. In our country, the first conditional division became known back in 1992. Then the technical committee, at that time of the Soviet Union, accepted the instruction. It regulated the procedure for the exchange of information in the Russian Federation on the emergency situations that had occurred.
In 1994, a special law was passed. It implies protection of the population and territories from any situations that have occurred as a result of natural and man-made accidents.
Extraordinary incidents are also classified in thedepending on the number of victims, the number of deceased, those who have violated the conditions of life. Also in terms of the amount of material damage caused. Another classification is carried out by the number of affected subjects of Russia. Emergencies can be divided into local, local, territorial, federal, regional, transboundary species.
Local state of emergency
A local emergency isThe result of which was no more than 10 people. They also include situations where only 100 urban residents have suffered damage or have their living conditions violated. Local incidents are incidents in which the loss is no more than 1 thousand of the minimum wage. In this case, the distribution zone of the incident should not go beyond the object of either production or social purpose.
Local emergency situations
Local emergencies are thoseSituations in which at least 10 people were injured, but also their total number did not exceed 50. With regard to violations of living conditions, this indicator should be above 100 and below 300 townspeople. In this case, material damage can be from 1 thousand to 5 thousand of the minimum wage. The incident should not spread outside the city, district or settlement.
Territorial state of emergency
Territorial emergencies arethose in which no more than 500 people were affected. And the conditions of life are violated only in 300-500 inhabitants. Material damage is not higher than 0.5 million of the minimum wage. At the same time, the problem should not leave the zone of the subject of the state.
Regional and federal emergencies
We will continue the review of emergency incidentsregional problems. These types of situations include those situations in which more than 500 people were affected. Infringement of living conditions should be estimated in excess of 1 thousand inhabitants, material damage is from 0.5 to 5 million and over 5 million from the minimum wage. In this case, this emergency situation may even go beyond the Russian Federation. However, it should not cover more than two of its subjects.
Transboundary emergency situation
Transboundary emergencies areThose that are so large that they go beyond the boundaries of the Russian Federation. And the same global problem can be called a situation that happened abroad, but at the same time spreading to the territory of the state in some way.
Elimination of consequences
The elimination of consequences is carried out by certainforces and enterprises, as well as institutions and organizations. At the same time, regardless of local self-government bodies, executive authorities, as well as the significance of the legal form of any institution in the territory of which an emergency was committed, all legal entities must take part in rescue operations under the guidance of a commission set up to deal with the consequences.
In addition, to eliminate all unpleasantsituations can also involve troops, formations and other serious persons, in accordance with the current legislation of the Russian Federation. It should be noted that liquidation is carried out due to a certain list of works. All of them are chosen depending on what situation occurred on a particular territory.
To the rescue operation can be considered manyurgent work. It should be noted that they are all performed depending on the degree of defeat. For example, if it is necessary to save people from a fire, then it is necessary to conduct full localization, hire a brigade to extinguish the fire. Accordingly, immediately evacuate residents from the burning building. In addition, it is necessary to find out the full center of defeat. This is done in the first place. This is the only way to get all the data about the situation that has occurred. Next, it is necessary to conduct a search and complete opening of all the collapsed buildings, in case the victims are under them. People who are injured need to be provided with medical care. Affected people should be evacuated to temporary housing or hospitals. If there was a flood or infection with a viral disease, then you need to transfer the population to the area where this emergency situation is not localized.
After carrying out the described measures, it is necessary tosanitize the injured and, if necessary, disinfect the transport, as well as all affected facilities. If it is a question of industrial buildings and their defeat, then emergency recovery work should be carried out.
The consequences of an emergency aresmall destruction or even huge damage. Everything depends on the scale, reasons and speed of reaction of the city administration. For example, a large number of people may die, buildings, social objects may suffer. If we are talking about industrial premises, then we should mention the state of the environment. The balance of the environment can be severely disturbed. One can at least recall the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. The level of radiation to this day in some nearby areas is off scale. This emergency (incident) still causes many people to shudder with fear.</ p>