A social institution is a systemsocial norms, connections, rules of behavior, a set of roles and social values that satisfy basic social needs and fulfill the role of regulators of public life.
The main ones are the institutes: families and production, state and religion, education and culture. These are the main functions of social institutions.
For the existence of society, this functionis one of the most important. It is obvious that without a constant replenishment of the population, society will soon cease to exist. The code of rules for the institution of the family assumes that the members of the society must unite into small groups, the so-called cells, or families. It is thanks to this function of social institutions that the population is reproduced. After all, otherwise, we could all continue to live in a social order. Or they were alone. Institutes (mainly families, states, religions) regulate the processes of creating married couples, dissolving marriages, setting the values for the birth of children.
The information produced by institutions shouldprimarily among individuals within the same institution, as well as between different social institutions. So there are communications, when in different situations, social institutions and their functions act as the distributors of information, then in the role of its consumers.
This function is to transfer the accumulated social experience. It can also be said that this is a function of socialization - the process of assimilation by an individual of social norms, values, rules of behavior.
Due to the set standards, a person adoptsencouraged in society patterns of behavior and plays the expected role from it. The greatest importance in the performance of this function of social institutions is the family, education, religion.
Since the activities of social institutionsis directly connected with the formation of norms and values of society, in the end they ensure mutual responsibility and interdependence of members of society. That, in turn, increases the level of its cohesion and integrity of the structure of society.
Hidden functions and dysfunctions of social institutions
In addition to the explicit (that is,officially recognized) there are hidden functions of institutions. They arise as a result of the natural interaction of institutions, social groups and individuals among themselves. For example, the institution of consumption can also perform the function of determining prestige. Institute of Education dictate social inequality. The institution of religion can be used as a way to lure funds from individuals.
When the discrepancy between explicit and hiddenfunctions becomes too great, there is a danger of malfunctioning, or even the formation of parallel institutions: sects, criminal structures, shadow economy, etc.
In addition, there is such a thing asdysfunction of social institutions - that is, their refusal to function, the ambiguity of values, statuses and roles. This is possible as a result of personalization of institutions, when their work begins to obey not the objective laws and needs of society, but adapts itself to the needs of certain groups or individuals. A vivid example of the dysfunction of the institution of religion is the crusades.
To correct dysfunction it is necessary to completely change the social institution, or to create a new one that will satisfy the necessary need of the society.</ p>