State (national state)the device legally represents the internal structure of the country, the legal position of its constituent parts. This concept reflects the peculiarities of their relations with the central government and with each other.
There are three main types of internal structure: the unitary, confederal and federal structure of the state.
The latter species is characterized as voluntaryunification of countries that have a certain independence. The federal system in the union state is carried out at the same time on the basis of a federal treaty. The subjects within the structure can be both state entities and sovereign countries. The federal system presupposes, as a rule, equal relations between the subjects and the federation. For this structure, the presence of subject and common territories, state bodies, citizenship, budget, constitutions and other is characteristic. Interests of subjects are represented by the parliamentary chamber.
Federal structure of the Russian Federationis fixed by the norms of the Constitution of the country and other legislative acts and includes the political organization of nationalities and nations on the basis of their self-determination in one form or another of statehood. The structure of the country has a fairly complex system. It includes not only a federal arrangement, but also a unitary and an autonomous one. As part of the Russian state there are autonomous regions, regions, regions (including autonomous), cities of federal significance, republics.
Among the constitutional foundations of the federal structure of Russia are:
- consolidating and spreading sovereignty throughout the country;
- the supremacy of federal laws and the Constitution throughout the territory;
- territorial inviolability and integrity of the country;
- differentiation in powers and subjects of conducting subjects and bodies of state power;
- self-determination and equality of peoples;
- equality and unity of citizenship.
These and other provisions of the first chapter of the ConstitutionThe Russian state, ensuring the regulation of issues on the state structure, are integral elements of the foundations of the Russian Federation. Change of these provisions can be carried out only in the constitutional order.
The federal system has a number of principles:
- Voluntariness in the unification of nationalities andnations. The voluntary character is evidenced, first of all, by the process of adoption of the Constitution of the Russian Federation by popular vote by all subjects in 1993.
- Equality and sovereignty of nations. The essence of the principle is to recognize the existence of the sovereign right of nations and nations to freely determine the political form of their existence.
- Federalism in conjunction with autonomy and unitarism. The embodiment of various forms of statehood is conditioned by the multinational character of the country, its complex historical path.
- National-territorial principle of the formation of state structures in conjunction with the territorial principle of the formation of subjects.
- State integrity. The most important legal guarantee for preserving the integrity of the state is the absence of rights to the withdrawal of subjects from the Russian Federation. The Constitution of the country provides for other norms providing the above guarantees.
- The principle of equality of subjects in the Federationcontinues the formulated principle - equality and sovereignty of nations. According to a number of authors who analyzed the essence of it, the subjects do not have absolutely equal rights, in view of the different forms of statehood.