A generator is an electric machine thatconverts the mechanical energy of rotation of the primary motor into direct current electric energy. Then, this converted energy is given to the consumer by the generator. The device of the generator is based on the laws of electromagnetic induction. One of the most common types of these devices is the so-called synchronous generator. It is an electric machine working on alternating current. Synchronism is achieved due to the presence of a certain number of pairs of poles. Thus, at a given frequency, the rotation speed will be constant.
The device of the generator is quite simple. Its main parts are electromagnets that create a magnetic rotating field, and the armature on which the winding is located.
Anchor is one of the main parts making upelectric generator. It has a cylindrical shape. An anchor comes from separate sheets of stamped electrical steel, the thickness of which does not exceed half a millimeter. Between the sheets is a layer of varnish or paper insulation. When assembling the cavities, which are riveted around the circumference on each sheet, they compress and form grooves into which the conductors of the isolated armature winding are laid.
The device of the generator provides forcollector. It consists of several copper plates, which are soldered in some places to the armature winding. They are also isolated from contact with each other. The collector is located in the generator in order to rectify the current, and also to withdraw it to the external network with the help of immovable brushes. The collector is fixed to the armature shaft.
As already mentioned above, the generator deviceIt is impossible without using the laws of electromagnetic induction. That is why the electricity generator has in its device electromagnets, which consist of pole steel cores. The cores are turned by bolts to the bed of the generator, cast from steel. In low-power machines, it sometimes happens that the bed is cast at once with the cores. In most cases, the cores are recruited from steel sheets. The core is put on a coil made of copper wire wound on it. The wire is also insulated. The constant excitation current passing through the winding creates a magnetic flux at the poles. For its better distribution in air gaps, poles are arranged with the tips collected from steel sheets.
The anchor rotating in a magnetic field inducesvariable in the direction and magnitude of the electromotive force (EMF) in the conductors of the armature winding. Soldering the ends of one turn to the ends of the other and putting brushes on the rings, connecting them to the external network, it is possible to obtain the device of the generator already of the alternating current, since in this case the rotation of the welded coil in a magnetic field creates a current that is variable in frequency and direction.
Synchronous generators have become very popular in transport, especially in railways. Usually they are used on diesel locomotives, in refrigerator sections.</ p>