Sport and physical development are an important partuniversal values, which provides the highest level of health promotion, influencing the spiritual world. Exercises are the main means of developing physical culture. They can be performed at any age, strong and weak, healthy and sick, disabled and people with developmental disabilities.
The foundations of development are laid down from birth,therefore, when assessing the health of the rising nation, the formation indices are mandatory. The study of physical health is carried out in newborns, adolescents, adults. This is important to determine the characteristics of generations of different ages.
What is physical development? One of the most important indicators of health. This is the pattern of age development, which determines the level of health and functioning of all systems in the body. At each age a person grows according to certain laws, and deviations from the norms indicate the existing problems in health. The physical development is influenced by the neuropsychic, intellectual state, a complex of medical-social, natural-climatic, organizational and socio-biological factors.
Throughout a person's life there are changes in the functional properties in the body:
- length and weight of the body;
- lung capacity;
- circumference of the chest;
- endurance and flexibility;
- dexterity and strength.
Strengthening the body goes either spontaneously (natural age), or purposeful, for which a special program is created physical development. It includes exercises, rational nutrition, the correct mode of rest and work. The level of development is affected by heredity, individual characteristics and capabilities of the human body, living conditions and geographical environment.
Body mass, height and proportions are programmed by genetic mechanisms, and if properly formed, the change will follow a certain sequence. But there are factors that violate it:
- violations in prenatal development;
- adverse social conditions;
- poor nutrition;
- passive way of life;
- the presence of bad habits;
- environmental factors.
- chronic diseases.
Influence of external factors
Physical development indicators may varyunder the influence of external factors. Violation of the activity of internal secretion leads to gigantism, dwarf growth, uneven growth. Rickets, hypotrophy, tuberculosis, dysentery are the causes of slow growth, poor weight gain, weakening of muscle tone, poor posture, flat feet. This means that physical development and health are closely related.
To obtain norms, children are given certainstandards for each geographical latitude separately. For this purpose, large groups of children are surveyed for the same age, sex and national characteristics. Standards can change under the impact of the material and cultural standard of living of the population.
These are standard for assessing developmentthe child as an individual, as well as children's and teenage collectives. Human life is a constant process of change, which consists of the following consecutive stages: maturation, maturity, old age.
What is sport?
Sport is an integral part of the physicalCulture, which includes exercises to strengthen the body. This is a competitive, playful and organizational activity aimed at holding such events. Sport is development, health, life. Every day there are more supporters of him, which, of course, pleases. The need for movement and competition accompanied the person at all stages of evolution, therefore the development of physical culture and sport begins from ancient times.
At the heart of the formation of physical activity is the need for physical education and health activities and the maintenance of a healthy lifestyle.
What is physical development and why is sport needed?To the person? Its value in a person's life is difficult to overestimate, so the love for this occupation should be taught from childhood. The harmful effects of the environment, poor nutrition and psychoemotional stresses, parents can compensate for by sports. In addition, special exercises will help to correct violations in the physical development of children, in particular, problems with the musculoskeletal system and flat feet. Also, training helps:
- gain missing muscle mass;
- reduce weight;
- to struggle with a curvature of a backbone;
- correct the posture;
- increase endurance and strength;
- to develop flexibility.
Development of teenagers
What is the physical development of a teenager? With the naked eye, you can see a certainawkwardness in their behavior and incoherence of the figure. This is a feature of physical development - tubular bones grow rapidly, and muscles are slow. Therefore, teenagers are so sharp in their movements: they do not know how to coordinate them, thereby bringing a lot of inconvenience to themselves. They do not notice unnecessary gestures and waving their hands when walking.
Awkwardness, inaccuracy and impetuositymovements increase when overexcited. Physical exercises and regular training are struggling effectively with this disadvantage. Also, a teenager is able to manage his psychological state and movements, which means that it is important to pay great attention to physical development.
A teenager can withstand heavy loads and prolonged stress, which seems impossible. This is explained by great enthusiasm and interest in the work, when fatigue and time are not seen.
Features of development:
- rapid growth of the heart does not correspond to the growth of body weight;
- changes in vascular systems lead to a lack of blood flow to the brain, so the teenager feels often dizzy and quickly tired;
- slow development of pulmonary apparatus;
- the development of the nervous system is the cause of irritability, inhibition or strong excitement.
What is physical development and upbringing? It consists in a set of health-improving exercises and measures that affect the strengthening of the body and spirit. The main task of education is improvement, the formation of thrifty movements, the accumulation of a motor experience by a person from early childhood and transferring it into life.
Aspects of physical education:
- feasible load;
- outdoor games;
- competent regime of the day, rational nutrition;
- personal hygiene and hardening.
Why physical education for a child?
Results from physical exertion can bevisible immediately and after a while. Education positively affects the child's body, developing its natural data, so that in the future it is easier to tolerate stressful situations and changing the situation:
- personal qualities develop, the temper is tempered;
- a positive attitude to life is formed, active people feel always happier;
- formed a negative attitude towards bad habits.
Physical education, physical developmentare necessary for the improvement of a person, his personal qualities and harmonious development. This is an important component of each stage of education and training. The system of physical education is referred to the category of social systems, because it achieves socially significant goals necessary for the development of not only an individual, but the entire society.
Health and Sport
Physical development, health are closely interrelated. Active way of life will relieve of problems with arterial pressure. Without physical exertion, the bones lose their elasticity and become brittle, a fat layer appears that grows with age and causes many problems related to health. Passively living man is depressed and emotionally unstable.
Sports should be moderate, andthe program of physical exercises to be made taking into account individual features, possibilities of an organism and age. Moderate exercises lead to the development of muscle mass, agility, endurance and flexibility, and excessive loads - to fatigue and exhaustion. The cult of health is introduced in many countries, he and the development of physical culture are rather well encouraged by the state financially and morally.
Development and human health is not onlythe presence or absence of any disease, but also a harmonious physical improvement corresponding to age. To determine these criteria, there are special groups of physical development, based on the state of health, functional deviations, morphological disorders and chronic diseases. The method of anthropometric research is applied:
- Morphological signs. Height, weight, circumference of the chest.
- Functional features. Muscular strength of arms, lung capacity, chest excursion.
- Somatoscopic signs. The shape of the chest, spine, legs, degree of fat loss.
The physical development of children is also determined by biological signs: motility, the formation of the dental system, growth and speech processes, puberty in adolescents.
Methods of examination
The program developed by the International Committeeon standardization of tests of physical readiness, determines the working capacity and physical development of a person. For this, a medical examination is carried out, the reaction of the organism and its various systems to physical activity is determined, the composition of the body is studied according to the correlation with the capacity for work.
In the survey, two methods are used: somatoscopy (external examination), anthropometry (measurements).</ p>