Anxiety is the most commonamong people. You can call hundreds, and even thousands of reasons that make a person nervous and worried. Feel anxiety is normal. But if this feeling does not pass and, moreover, is aggravated, then it is worth asking for help.
As research shows, too highthe level of anxiety can adversely affect health. To avoid negative consequences and to determine in a timely manner a personal level of anxiety, there is the Spielberger-Khanin technique.
The Spielberger-Khanin technique is based on suchconcepts like "anxiety" and "anxiety". Under anxiety, it is customary to mean an emotional state, in which there is a strong excitement, causeless or caused by certain factors, anxiety. Quite often these symptoms can be observed in a person without any reason. Such a state is natural only if it does not disorganize vital activity.
The second concept of the Spielberger-Khanin techniqueconsidered anxiety. It is considered to be a process of experiencing anxiety, which has a low reaction threshold. Looking at what caused the emergence of anxiety, distinguish two of its subspecies: situational and personal.
From the names it is already clear that the situationalanxiety is a change in the emotional background due to a changed situation (quarrel with a friend, a wedding, the death of a relative, etc.). Personal anxiety can arise, if I may say so, from scratch. This is a stable personality characteristic. There are people who can suppress their emotions, but there are those who have mood changes from the slightest blow of the wind.
Methods of psychodiagnostics
In psychodiagnostics there is not so littlemethods to assess the degree of anxiety of the patient. As a rule, they are used when working with children, in particular, if the child is from an unhappy family, as well as in clinical psychiatry and counseling psychology. The most popular methods for determining the degree of anxiety is the Taylor method and the Spielberger-Khanin technique.
Besides them, the following are in demand:
- Tests of depressive moods (Zhmurov, Dunge).
- Methods of studying the level of stress resistance and adaptation in society (Rage, Holmes).
- Tests for the determination of social frustration (Wasserman).
- Method for diagnosing the degree of subjective control (Rotter).
For a more detailed study of the patient's condition, a complex consisting of several techniques can be used.
Scale of anxiety
Despite the abundance of psychologicaldiagnostics, only the technique of C. Spielberger and Yu. Khanin can simultaneously measure anxiety as well as a personality characteristic. The technique was developed by the American clinical psychologist Charles Spielberger, adapted for domestic realities by Yuri Khanin, which is why he got his name.
It is believed that this is one of the best diagnostics. The Spielberger-Khanin method consists of a questionnaire, in which there are 40 statements. Items 1 to 20 are focused on determining the level of situational anxiety. Positions under numbers 21-41 will characterize personal anxiety.
By the way, this questionnaire is adapted to 52 foreign languages and is recognized as an international method for determining the degree of anxiety and anxiety.
The Spielberger-Khanin technique is aThe questionnaire is the table in which the claims are written to the left. Opposite to each of them there are a number of figures from 1 to 4. They show the level of the patient's agreement with the statement. The higher the figure, the greater the level of agreement. In a particular test there are such evaluation criteria:
- Very rarely (almost never) - 1 point.
- Rarely - 2.
- Often - 3.
- Very often (almost always) - 4.
In this scale of statements, a specialthe emphasis is on determining the patient's condition at a particular moment. This helps the psychologist quickly understand how these or other changes affect a person.
This can not be said about the scale of personal anxiety, which is focused on the knowledge of the inner world of man. The second block of questions of the Spielberger-Khanin technique consists of such statements:
- I can be in high spirits.
- At times I feel irritable.
- It's easy to upset me.
- I want to be as lucky as the rest.
- For a long time I am worried because of troubles.
- I feel that I am full of energy.
- Always impartial and calm.
- I'm worried about future difficulties.
- Even trifles make me nervous.
- Sometimes I feel a rush of happiness.
- I take all events seriously.
- I want to have more confidence.
- I feel my defenselessness.
- I try not to get involved in difficult situations.
- Sometimes I feel like moping.
- Sometimes I feel happy.
- Distractions and troubles petty matters.
- At times I feel like a failure.
- I worry every time I think about my own affairs.
Questions should be answered without hesitation. To get the result, you need to summarize all the numbers obtained for each of the scales. Within one stage of the diagnosis, a person can score from 20 to 80 points. Accordingly, the higher the final number, the higher the degree of anxiety.
Thus, it can be determined that patients withballs from 20 to 30 have a low level of anxiety. Those who received from 31 to 43 points have anxiety at the average level. Those whose indicators exceed the mark of 65 points, there may be psychosomatic disorders in the background of increased anxiety. Very often they will require psychological (and often medical) help.
But practicing psychologists working with the techniqueI. Spilberger and Yu. Khanin, pay attention to one more nuance - this is a low level of assessments. After all, we can not exclude the fact that the patient simply wanted to present himself in a more favorable light. In addition, complete emotional immunity and passivity may indicate prolonged depression, apathy, emotional burnout or fatigue.
Thus, the Spielberger-Hanin test canperfectly diagnose the level of anxiety rights. In addition, it can be used and independently to determine your emotional state in a specific period of time.</ p>