The mental world of man is a multifaceteda system that is constantly changing in the process of vital activity. But modernization will be impossible without improving the functioning of its components. Therefore, we need to consider the mental processes, properties and states as the basis for the manifestation of the inner life of man. Let us dwell on this in more detail.
Mental processes are a form ofexistence of the inner world of man, because it is not static and is formed in the process of interaction of the individual with the environment. Therefore, they need to be considered only in dynamics and in development. Mental processes are included in the most complex activities and are divided into the following classes:
- cognitive (cognitive), which provide reflection in the consciousness of the surrounding world (perception, sensations, representation, memory, attention, imagination, thinking);
- emotional-volitional, which provide features of activity and behavior (motivation, volitional efforts, control processes, goal-setting, decision-making);
- communicative, which promote interaction with other people.
In the structure of personality, they are a more static and stable characteristic.
In contrast, mental states function for a short period of time. Classification is made on the following grounds:
- by the form and level of emotionality (sadness, shame, joy, aggressiveness, etc.);
- by intensity;
- by level of physiological resource;
- mental stress;
- by the duration of the condition itself;
- by mood (unfavorable, favorable).
Mental properties arestable and manifested constantly characteristics of a person, which are due to the characteristics of his activities and behavior. After a certain time, they have the feature of stabilizing and forming some constant quality.
Mental properties can change and evolve as long as a person will function and improve. The main ones are:
- the direction of the personality;
Let us consider in more detail these mental properties of the personality.
Temperament is an individualthe quality of a person, which determines the features of its course in mental processes and activities. So, the choleric is fast, impetuous, unbalanced, quick-tempered, quickly irritated, impatient. Sanguine will perform the task when he is interested, but is able to maintain self-control in any situation. In addition, this type of temperament is characterized by communicability and initiative. Phlegmatic differs calm, smooth, persevering, stubborn character. He is careful and discreet, but not so sociable. Melanchol is a weak type of nervous system. He is impressionable, pessimistic, indecisive, sensitive and closed.
As noted, psychic properties includein themselves also abilities (special and general), which differ in efficiency and speed in mastering activity. Their combination is denoted as giftedness, and a high degree is talent.
Basic psychic properties in the structurepersonality is an orientation (it includes the goals that a person sets for himself, his aspirations and motives for activity, the interests with which he is guided) and character. The latter represents a set of pronounced, stable states that are typical of him).
As practice shows, mental properties are characterized by the fact that they are constantly manifested in the actions and actions of man.