Each capital has unique recognizableAttractions, according to which they instantly determine which city they are talking about. In the main city of Russia it is Pashkov's house. In Moscow, so called a building immortalized in world literature by Mikhail Afanasievich Bulgakov, from the belvedere of which, at sunset, Woland and Azazello examined the beauty of Moscow and said goodbye to her forever.

Who was the man who gave the name to the architectural masterpiece

"It is not in vain that Bulgakov set his heroes to the heroes,Well, no, not in the house, but on the roof (Then in Moscow he was all taller ...) ". One of the most beautiful buildings named the brilliant author of the "Master and Margarita" Pashkov House in Moscow, built to order "the first Russian vodka king, Pashkov Peter Egorovich, ambitious and foolish (scandalous with neighbors) rights.

pashkov house in moscow
Not every captain-lieutenant (now the seniorlieutenant), who served even in the elite Life Guards of the Semyonovsky Regiment, could build his own personal Kremlin "in comfort" directly opposite the Moscow Kremlin. A rich farmer wanted to leave a memory for himself, and he succeeded - very few people do not know Pashkov's house in Moscow. Many, admiring the architectural masterpiece, will want to know who was the master, who is the author and the executor of the project. This is how the grandson of orderly Peter I will be famous in the ages as a man who contributed to the unique charm of our capital, spread out on seven hills.

One of the cities on seven hills

In the world there are more than a dozen cities locatedon the same number of hills, including Rome, Constantinople and Washington. The names of the Moscow hills excite the imagination - Vorobyovy Gory, Lefortovo Hill, Zayauzie. Vagankovsky Hill, which crowns one of Moscow's most outstanding sights since 1784, is now united with the Presnya area and is called the "Three Mountains".

The very center of the capital

house of architect in Moscow
If you look at the map of the Centraladministrative district, it can be seen that despite the address (Vozdvizhenka Street 35, Building 1), Pashkov's house in Moscow stands at the crossroads of Znamenka and Mokhovaya. The main exit leads to Starovagankovsky alley, and the front facade is deployed to Mokhovaya Street, and then to Borodino Hill and the Kremlin. "The navel of the earth," and only. Before the palace, a terraced park with two stone pools, grottoes, sculptures, fountains, surrounded by a magnificent forged fence, the fragment of which was preserved from the Znamenka side to the present day, was originally built in front of the palace. Of course, on the territory of the site was owned by Pashkov house church of St. Nicholas the Sinner. The palace on Vagankovskom hill was the first in Moscow, and in the country a secular building, from which windows Ivanovskaya and Sobornaya Square and the Kremlin were visible. Nearby is the Stone Bridge.

The genius of architecture

Who in those days could be the author of such a masterpiece,as Pashkov's house in Moscow? The architect Vasily Bazhenov (1738-1799), the first vice-president of the Imperial Academy of Arts, a man whose merits to Russian architecture can not be overestimated. Suffice it to call the palace ensemble in Tsaritsyno, which he built for 10 years, and Pashkov's house in Moscow to understand the scale of this genius of classicism.

The top of creativity

Especially good is his Moscow masterpiece. The castle-fairy tale, according to experts, created on Vagankovskom hill Bazhenov. Pashkov House in Moscow admires all connoisseurs of architecture not only with its unique beauty, but also with the "perfect, perfect balance of all parts in a single structure". So wrote the connoisseur and connoisseur of architecture I. Grabar. And not only he believes that the academician of architecture Vasily Bazhenov created a handsome palace, looking upwards, reminiscent of a monumental sculpture on a pedestal. Pashkov House in Moscow, whose style is classicism, has become a symbol of this direction in Russia. Located to the surrounding streets at an angle, the house looks better at some distance, for example, from the point at the very beginning of the odd side of the Volkhonka.

bazhenov house pashkov in Moscow

The best angles

If you look at a house from afar, you can trace ita single composite solution - the pillars of the fence continues the staircase and columns of the facade, the circular terrace wraps around the top a graceful silhouette of the walls above which the colonnade of the belvedere rises. In some sources it is said that the original color of the walls was orange. This architectural masterpiece of quite a large size gives the impression of an air striving up the castle.

National treasure

The house was so good, and represented for Moscowsuch a value that after the fire of 1812, which did not pass the Pashkov Palace, funds for its restoration, despite the fabulous wealth of the owners, were allocated from the state treasury. The palace was a Moscow miracle - to its beauty were added festive fireworks and illuminations, arranged in honor of the frequent receptions given by the owners. Exotic birds sitting in expensive cages or walking in the park, increased the fabulous impression that Pashkov's house produced in Moscow. The photos in the article show the palace in different angles, and it is clear how good it is.

pashkov's house in Moscow style

From hand to hand

Somehow it's a shame to read that some experts doubt the authorship of Bazhenov.

The last mistress of the house from the Pashkov family in 1839it was bought out by the state treasury for university needs. But in the following times the handsome man continued to change the owners. So, already in 1843, it comfortably settled the University noble board, which, in turn, was transformed into the Moscow Nobility Institute, later in 1852 - to the city gymnasium No. 4. In 1861 Pashkov House was transferred to the Rumyantsev Museum.

The birth of "Leninka"

pashkov's house in Moscow
And in 1921, when more than 400 entered itrequisitioned personal libraries, all other departments of the museum are transferred to another building. The remaining books become the funds of the famous "Leninka", which, again, in turn, became the Russian State Library. Who did not know this library in Soviet Russia? We heard about it even those who had no idea about Pashkov's house. The glory of this book depository was no less than the popularity of Pashkov's house today. She was the heroine of many feature films, about her wrote poems - "... and from the nineteenth century the library entered the house! Well, the one that "Leninka" is called, readers are always welcome here ... ".

A place favorable for the birth of legends

With the change of so many owners Pashkov's house in Moscow,the architecture of which provides for a lot of secret and mysterious corners, over the years it has become legendary. Not only the palace, but the entire Vagankovsky Hill is full of mysterious voids, grottoes, underground caves, and, most importantly, under Pashkov's house was discovered a huge, diameter of 8 meters, laid out with white stone, a well. Where he leads, it is impossible to say, because the studies were not completed due to the collapsed walls of the well and fear of collapse of the foundation of the building. And it is quite natural that an assumption arose (it was expressed, for example, by the archaeologist I. Ya. Stelletsky) that it is here that the famous Liberia can be kept - the so-called Library of Ivan the Terrible. Why not, because there are about 60 presumed places to store the legendary library, which was a dowry of the Byzantine princess Sophia Palaeologus, who became the wife of Ivan III.

No worse than in English castles

house of pashkov in moscow excursion
One can not but mention one more legend at homePashkova. It is pretty, but very incredible - in the mythological mansion the ghost of Nikolai Alexandrovich Rubakin (1862-1946), the author of the recommendatory index "Among books" and "Psychology of the reader and books". This man, a bibliographer and bibliographer, collected two large libraries (more than 200,000 volumes) and handed them over to the people. To whom, no matter how this "bookworm" (in the best sense of the word) does not wander through the halls of the main book storage of the country! Fans of this person and legends say that if you ask him to help you find the right book, he will never refuse.

After the restoration, which ended in 2009, in the right wing of the mansion there is a repository of ancient manuscripts, and in the left there is a music library.

house in Moscow architecture

Excursions to the house-legend

They say that the entrance to the "underground Moscow", wherekept the state treasury in case of fires, so often devastated the medieval capital, was located on the Vagankovskom hill. Well, where else was Woland to throw a farewell glance at Moscow? Pashkov's house is unique in all respects in Moscow. Tours on it shed light on many issues of interest to tourists from around the world, and give them the opportunity to enjoy the most beautiful view of the Kremlin. Excursions are very informative and are conducted daily. The gathering place, as a rule, is located in front of the Kutafia Tower of the Kremlin or at the monument to F. Dostoyevsky, or at the exit from the metro "Library im. Lenin. " Excursions are conducted by professionals, several directions - from the interior and decoration of the palace to the theme of Woland, that is, everything mystical that is connected with the most beautiful and mysterious building in Moscow - Pashkov's house.

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