It is unlikely that robots will ever be completelyreplace a person in those areas of activity in which rapid adoption of non-standard solutions is required both in a peaceful life and in combat. Nevertheless, the development of drones in the last nine years has become a fashionable trend in military aircraft construction. Many militarily leading countries massively produce UAVs. Russia has not so far succeeded not only in occupying the traditionally leading positions in the field of weapon design for the weapon, but also in overcoming the gap in this segment of defense technologies. However, work is in progress in this direction.
Motivation for developing a UAV
The first results of the use of unmannedaircraft appeared in the forties, however, the technique of that time was more in line with the concept of "plane-projectile." The cruise missile "Fau" could fly in one direction in an autonomous mode, having its own control system of the course, built on an inertial-gyroscopic principle.
In the 50's and 60's, Soviet air defense systems reachedhigh level of efficiency, and began to pose a serious threat to the aircraft of a likely adversary in the event of a real confrontation. The wars in Vietnam and the Middle East caused real panic among US and Israeli pilots. Cases of refusals to perform combat missions in areas covered by Soviet-made anti-aircraft complexes were not infrequent. Ultimately, the reluctance to expose the lives of the pilots to deadly risk prompted the design companies to look for a way out.
Beginning of practical application
The first country to use unmanned aircraft,became Israel. In 1982, during the conflict with Syria (the Bekaa Valley), reconnaissance planes appeared in the sky, working in a robotic mode. With their help, the Israelis succeeded in detecting enemy air defenses, which allowed them to strike a missile strike on them.
The first drones were intended exclusively forreconnaissance flights over the "hot" territories. At the present time, drone drones are also used, which have weapons and ammunition on board and directly bomb and missile strikes against the enemy's alleged positions.
Most of them are from the United States, where massively produced "Predators" and other types of combat airborne robots.
The experience of the use of military aviation in modernthe period, in particular, the operation to pacify the South Ossetian conflict in 2008, showed that UAVs are also needed. To conduct reconnaissance by heavy jet planes in conditions of counteraction of enemy air defense is risky and leads to unjustified losses. As it turned out, there are certain shortcomings in this area.
The dominant idea of modern military doctrinetoday is the opinion that the UAV drums are needed to a lesser extent than reconnaissance. To strike a fire at the enemy can be a variety of means, including tactical missiles of high accuracy and artillery. Much more important information about the disposition of his forces and the correct target designation. As the American experience has shown, the use of drones directly for bombardment and bombardment leads to numerous mistakes, the death of civilians and their own soldiers. This does not exclude the complete rejection of impact samples, but only reveals a promising direction, which will soon develop new UAVs. It would seem that the country, most recently still occupying leading positions in the creation of unmanned aerial vehicles, is doomed to success even today. Even in the first half of the 60's, aircraft were created that made flights in the automatic mode: La-17R (1963), Tu-123 (1964) and others. Leadership persisted in the 70's and 80's. However, in the nineties, the technological gap became obvious, and the attempt to eliminate it in the last decade, accompanied by the expenditure of five billion rubles, did not yield the expected result.
At the moment, the most promising UAVs of Russia are represented by the following main models:
|Name||a brief description of|
|"Pacer"||An approximate analogue of the "Predator" MQ-1|
|Altair||Exemplary analogue Reaper MQ-9|
|Dozor-600||The medium-heavy is heavy. Long duration and range of flight|
|"Hunter"||Heavy Impact UAV|
In practice, the only serial UAVs in RussiaNow they are represented by the "Tipchak" artillery reconnaissance complex capable of carrying out a narrowly outlined range of combat missions related to target designation. The agreement signed between Oboronprom and IAI in 2010 on a large-scale assembly of Israeli drones can be viewed as a temporary measure that does not provide for the development of Russian technologies, but only a covering gap in the range of domestic defense production.
Some prospective models can be considered separately in the context of public information.
The take-off weight is one ton, which is for a dronenot too little. The design development is carried out by the company "Transas", now there are flight tests of prototypes. Layout scheme, V-tail, wide wing, take-off and landing method (aircraft), and the general characteristics roughly correspond to those of the most popular American "Predatory". UAV of Russia "Pioneer" will be able to carry a variety of equipment that allows reconnaissance at any time of the day, aerial photography and telecommunications support. The possibility of producing shock, reconnaissance and civilian modifications is supposed.
The main model is reconnaissance, it is equippedradar, video and cameras, thermal imagers and other registration equipment. On the basis of a heavy glider, drone UAVs can also be produced. Russia Dozor-600 is needed more as a universal platform for working out technologies for the production of more powerful drones, but it is also impossible to exclude the launch of this drone in the mass series. The project is currently under development. The date of the first flight is 2009, at the same time the sample was presented at the international exhibition "MAX". Designed by Transas.
It can be assumed that at the moment the mostlarge shock UAV of Russia - "Altair", development OKB "Sokol". The project has another name - Altius-M. The take-off weight of these unmanned vehicles is five tons, it will be built by the Gorbunov Kazan Aircraft Plant, which is part of the Tupolev Joint-Stock Company. The cost of the contract concluded with the Ministry of Defense is about one billion rubles. It is also known that these new UAVs have dimensions commensurate with the dimensions of the interceptor aircraft:
- length - 11 600 mm;
- the wing span is 28 500 mm;
- the scale of plumage is 6 000 mm.
The power of two screw aircraft diesels is 1000l. from. In the air these reconnaissance and strike UAVs of Russia will be able to stay up to two days, overcoming the distance of 10 thousand kilometers. About electronic equipment is little known, it remains only to guess about its capabilities.
In the future, there are otherUAV of Russia, for example, the mentioned "Hunter", unmanned heavy drone, capable also to perform various functions both informative and reconnaissance, and shock-assault. In addition, on the principle of the device is also observed a variety. UAVs are both aircraft and helicopter type. A large number of rotor screws provides the ability to effectively maneuver and hang over an interesting object, producing high-quality photography. Information can be quickly transmitted over coded communication channels or accumulated in the built-in memory of equipment. The control of the UAV is algorithmic-software, remote or combined, in which the return to the base is made in automatic mode in case of loss of control.
Apparently, unmanned Russian vehicles will soon neither qualitatively nor quantitatively yield to foreign models.</ p>