The subjectivist approach was developed primarily by Lavrov, PL and Mikhailovskii, N. K. This theory includes several components:
- subjective method in sociology, its rationale, the definition on its basis of the subject of science;
- identification of the determinants of the development of society;
- a peculiar view of the causes and criteria of social progress;
- personality, its role in history.
Substantiation of the subjective method
Objective methods of cognition are inherent in the naturalsciences, whereas sociology should use a subjective approach. From this point of view, Lavrov's method was defined to the fore by personality, not by group or class. It is she who acts in society under the influence of subjective determinants, not external factors. Thus, a person can not be known by anyone other than as a subject by means of the principle of empathy. This means that the observer can put himself in the position of the observed, identify with himself and thereby understand and know.
Development of society and criteria for social progress
The subjective method in the sociology of Lavrov andMikhailovsky puts the personality in the center of society. Consequently, the latter progresses when the personality develops in it in the moral, mental and physical planes. The goals of society can be achieved only thanks to a person who in no way should be absorbed by the society. Thus, the method of Lavrov in sociology puts at the forefront the study of relationships between people, the search for the causes of such interaction as the only method of studying the history of mankind.
How does the personality become the enginesocial progress and the ruler of the history of all mankind? Critical thought - this answer gives a subjective method of Lavrov. Personality, capable of critical thinking, are the engines of civilization. They are a minority in society, while other people must provide them with conditions for existence. Critically thinking minority determines the moral direction of society. These individuals should not be drowned out and suppressed, otherwise the society will simply perish. Thus, the main goals of the development of the society should be a self-fulfilling personality, the development of individuality and critical thinking. That is why social progress is characterized by the creation of relations between people, which contribute to the development of the individual in all its manifestations.</ p>