This beautiful country has manynatural and cultural-historical monuments, which still attract the attention of some researchers and tourists. But mountainous Karabakh is more known to the whole world for the ethnic conflict that took place in 1988 - so the story was ordered. The beginning for the sad, took away many lives of the incident was the statement of the leadership of the autonomy about joining Armenia. Currently, the region, which is actually the administrative part of Azerbaijan, is controlled by the unrecognized Nagorno-Karabakh Republic in the world.
Nagorno-Karabakh: where is it located?
It occupies the mountain and piedmont region of MalyCaucasus, the same geographical area. The etymology of the name comes from the Turkic "kara" (which means "black") and "bah" (in Persian - "garden"). Often this term - mountain Karabakh - is also called the unrecognized republic itself. But geographically the territories coincide only partially.
In ancient times, mountainous Karabakh was inhabitedtribes that had no Indo-European roots. These tribes mingled with the Armenians, and the region itself became part of it (4-2 centuries BC). At this time the area was part of the Ervandid Armenian kingdom (it was called Artsakh province). After the fall of the Armenian kingdom, it departs to the Caucasian Albania (dependent on Persia). But for a long time of being in Armenia, the tribes armenized and acquired all the signs of Armenian culture. So, according to one historical source, in 700 g. e. people who inhabited mountainous Karabakh then spoke Armenian dialect. And had all the signs of belonging to this ethnic group.
The Middle Ages and the New History
In the 9-11th century the territory is included in the restoredThe Armenian state, and from the 13th century the Armenian princes ruled there. In the 12-13 centuries, Karabakh is one of the centers of Armenian culture and political life (according to the testimony of foreign travelers). Up to the 16th century, as some historians believe, the institutions of Armenian statehood were preserved in Artsakh.
In the 20s of the 18th century, Karabakh was a center of struggleagainst the empire of Osman, designed to free Armenians from occupation. And since the reign of Peter the Great and later, the priests are conducting secret correspondence, which aims to annex the territories of Karabakh to the Russian Empire. In the middle of the 18th century, the Khanate was established, which subordinated the Armenian Karabakh, and the terrain and people are under Turkic rule.
And in 1805, during the Russo-Persian War inKarabakh entered the Russian troops. Since 1813 (signed peace treaty) - this is officially the Russian territory. And since 1823, after the complete elimination of the Khanate, Nagorno-Karabakh is at first part of the Karabakh Russian province, and then several counties of the province.
The Russian Empire collapsed, and the AzerbaijaniThe state immediately challenges the right of Armenians to manage the territory. The region again becomes a square for interethnic clashes between Armenians and Azerbaijanis. With foreign aid, the latter are successful, and the territory passes under the authority of Azerbaijan. In the Soviet years, the area was considered controversial, but in 1921-23. it finally becomes part of the AzSSR, and then is allocated to the autonomous region.
Mountainous Garabagh. The war and the essence of the conflict
The Armenian population of the region has always wishedrestoration (in his opinion) of justice in the historical plan. After all, Artsakh, a well-known region with a long history of Armenian history, was a willful decision of the Soviet government transferred under the rule of Azerbaijanis and became part of the AzSSR. The unequal position of some representatives of the people (and the number of Armenians during the years of the Soviet Union in Karabakh decreased significantly), was the main reason for the reluctance to remain in this position. All this led to the emergence of a conflict situation: pogroms in Sumgait, events in Baku, Khojaly.
The very essence of it is due to the fact thatthe Azerbaijani authorities do not want to recognize Karabakh as an indigenous Armenian land, denoting Armenia as an aggressor and occupier. And at the beginning of the nineties, first spontaneous and then massive military operations broke out, leading to a real war between Azerbaijan and Armenia. Shaky and relative, the world was restored only by the year 94.
The referendum on independence and the current situation
In the 91st in Nagorno-Karabakh, aa nationwide referendum on independence. The republic has formed autonomous institutions of power. The UN and other international structures and until today do not recognize the sovereignty of the country. Solidarity and loyalty are shown only by Abkhazia, South Ossetia, Transnistria, which in some measure are themselves unrecognized. Russia has repeatedly acted as a peacemaker in the settlement of the dispute. But the conflicting countries have not yet reached a consensus on borders and territories. Azerbaijan continues to frighten with forceful seizure of the republic, and Armenia insists on self-determination and a new referendum. What is happening in Nagorno-Karabakh now? In a fragile world, the republic continues to develop such sectors as agriculture, tourism, mining. But provocation and forays of sabotage groups continue, although the government assures that the situation is under control.</ p>