In December 2017, 95 years from the dayformation of the USSR - the state, which existed for almost 69 years. During the Soviet Union, the unanimous and voluntary joining of the fraternal republics in the USSR was emphasized. After its disintegration, this part of our history is presented in textbooks in a different way. Some researchers argue that one of the main reasons for the collapse of the Union in 1991 was autonomization. This opinion is not without foundation. Let's find out why.
Formation of independent republics
After the Bolsheviks came to power, they immediatelySeveral important decrees were adopted, including the Declaration, which gave the peoples of Russia the right to create independent states. This right was used by the Finns, Latvians, Poles, Ukrainians, Estonians and other peoples, formerly subjects of the Russian Empire, who now gained independence.
At the beginning of 1918 the Third Congress of Sovietslegislatively consolidated the federal principle with broad autonomy for those peoples who wish to remain in the RSFSR. This approach, on the one hand, deprived the nationalist movements on the outskirts of the former empire of the main reason for the continuation of the struggle, and, on the other, struck a blow against the great-power idea that was cultivated in Russia until October 1917.
Nevertheless, during the Civil War severalthe young Soviet republics combined their armed forces, finances, communication systems and transport for joint defense and subsequent restoration of the national economy. In the early 20-ies the future of such a military-economic union caused great debate. In general, three options were proposed: confederation, federation and autonomy. This became one of the state tasks that needed an early solution.
Federation for Lenin
The leaders of some Soviet republics,who wanted to preserve their independence, proposed the creation of a confederation where there would not be single state government bodies. But V.I. Lenin, who enjoyed enormous prestige in the Soviet government, criticized the idea of a confederation, believing that in such a state there would be too weak ties between the national republics.
However, Lenin did not agree with the proposalStalin, according to which, autonomization is the unification of the Soviet republics within the Russian Federation as autonomous (independent and equal participants). Lenin was a supporter of the federal system of the Soviet Union. He, in fact, came up with this name for the future state.
The federation, Lenin believed, for the multinationalcountry is the most acceptable form of association. Such a state-political system would provide for equal rights for all republics, including the right to secede from the Soviet Union. In the federation there should not be room for excessive centralism and great-power chauvinism.
Stalin's plan for autonomization
In 1922, Stalin served as People's Commissar of the RSFSR foraffairs of nationalities. He also headed the party-state commission, which developed a draft law, which in history was called the "plan for autonomization."
According to the bill, three Soviet republics - Belarus, Ukraine and the Transcaucasian Federation (Azerbaijan, Armenia and Georgia) - were to become autonomous regions within the Russian Federation.
In fact, Stalin proposed the creation of a unitarya state with common organs of the highest power for all republics and a legal system. In other words, the central leadership was to play a decisive role in all spheres of life of the union republics, which in fact lost their internal sovereignty.
Education of the USSR
December 30, 1922 the delegation of Sovietrepublics signed the Union Treaty and the Declaration proclaiming the formation of the USSR. These documents indicated that only issues of foreign trade and politics, defense, communications and finance will be under the jurisdiction of central government bodies. The remaining cases remained in the competence of the republican authorities.
Thus, the basis for the creation of the USSR wasLenin's principles of sovereignty and equality are laid down, however, as time has shown, only formally. In reality, however, the rights of the Union republics were gradually curtailed, and the state itself became unitary. Very soon Stalin's autonomization of the USSR began to be realized.
What in the end?
The causes of some interethnic conflicts that arose at the turn of the 80's and 90's in the territory of the USSR and after its disintegration in the post-Soviet space should be sought in the Soviet era.
Of course, these problems can not be blamedprinciples of autonomization, laid by party leadership in the basis of state-national policy. Before the revolution, the situation in this sphere was no better. Nevertheless, the infringement of the sovereign rights of the republics could not pass without a trace.
The period of Soviet history, when preparations were under way forthe creation of the USSR, so far little has been studied, like Stalin's autonomization. This leads to contradictory assessments of current political relations between the formerly former Soviet republics and in any case does not contribute to the peaceful resolution of existing interethnic conflicts.</ p>