The great teacher Vasily Sukhomlinsky said thatThe training should not be a usual accumulation of knowledge or serve as a memory training. He taught the children that through observation, thinking, the ability to reason, one can become a creator, a traveler, and an discoverer.
Today the school faces the task of educating a creative personality who is able to think independently and draw logical conclusions. Therefore, many teachers use methods of problem training.
What is the essence of learning using the method of posing problems
Problem learning should be understood as suchThe type of training during which the problem situations that are created consistently for educational purposes are resolved. Under the problematic situation, one should understand a conscious difficulty that runs counter to the knowledge already gained and those that are necessary to solve the proposed task. The task by which the problem situation was created is called the problem task, or simply a problem.
SL Rubinshtein, considering the psychological basis of problem training, formulated the thesis that any process of thinking always gives rise to a problematic situation.
It should be noted that not every type of difficultycan cause a problematic situation. Therefore, the technology of problem training involves understanding the nature of the problem. The student should feel that for the solution of a certain task he lacks the knowledge that he has already received, there is a need to find new ways and methods of action. Thus, there is a need to search as one of the components of creative thinking.
As mentioned earlier, the technology of the problemtraining involves the processes of generating creative search and thinking. They will not arise in the event that the teacher puts the students who are too strong at a certain stage of training, if it turns out that the pupils are not yet ready for this kind of activity. This must be taken into account so that the students do not lose faith in their strength and that they do not lose the desire to comprehend the new and learn.
Long-term research confirms that the technology of problem training consists of the following stages:
- comprehension of the arising problem situation;
- an analysis of this situation and the definition of a specific problem;
- its solution by making assumptions, stage-by-stage verification of hypotheses;
- analysis and verification of the correctness of the decision.
The main methods used in problem training
There are the following methods of problem training: problematic presentation, heuristic and research.
The main essence of the method of problem statementis to disclose to students ways to find, discover and explore new knowledge. Thus, the pupils are preparing for independent search in the future. Also this method serves as the basis for the heuristic method, and it, in turn, for the research method.
Heuristic method provides an independent, in general terms, a planned search for a solution to the problem.
But the central place is the technology of the problematictraining refers to the research method. Its peculiarity is that the learning process will follow the pattern of scientific research, but in an accessible, more simplified form for students.
Pros and cons of problematic learning
Probably, no one will deny thosedignity, which has problematic training. This development of attention, observation of the student, and the activation of cognitive activity, thinking, and the education of independence, self-criticism, initiative, responsibility, caution, determination, non-standard thinking. But the main thing is that problem training provides strong knowledge, which is obtained independently.
One of the drawbacks of such training isname the difficulties that inevitably arise during training. Solving problem problems requires more time. Of course, the teacher should have a good command of the factual material, constantly improve his professional skills, take into account in his work the psychological bases of problem training.
At the same time, the problematic training meets the requirements of today, allowing to educate a creative, analytical-minded personality.</ p>