In the autumn of 1956, events took place thatThe fall of the communist regime was called the Hungarian uprising, and in Soviet sources it was called a counter-revolutionary insurgency. But, regardless of how they were characterized by these or those ideologists, it was an attempt by the Hungarian people to overthrow the pro-Soviet regime by armed means. She was among the most important events in the Cold War, which showed that the USSR was ready to use military force to maintain its control over the Warsaw Pact countries.
Establishment of the communist regime
To understand the causes of the uprising that took place in1956, we should dwell on the internal political and economic situation of the country in 1956. First of all, it should be taken into account that during the Second World War, Hungary fought on the side of the fascists, therefore, in accordance with articles of the Paris Peace Treaty signed by the countries of the anti-Hitler coalition, the USSR had the right to keep its troops on its territory right up to the withdrawal of the allied occupying forces from Austria.
Immediately after the war in Hungary passedgeneral elections, at which the Independent Party of Small Masters with a significant margin of votes won a victory over the Communist WPT - the Hungarian Workers' Party. As it became known later, the ratio was 57% against 17%. However, based on the support of the contingent of the Soviet armed forces in the country, as early as in 1947, the VPT, through fraud, threats and blackmail, seized power, appropriating the right to be the only legal political party.
The pupil of Stalin
Hungarian Communists tried in all to imitatetheir Soviet party members, it's not for nothing that their leader Matthias Rakosi received the nickname of the best student of Stalin. This "honor" he was awarded thanks to the fact that, having established a personal dictatorship in the country, he tried in all things to copy Stalin's model of state administration. In an environment of outrageous tyranny, industrialization and collectivization were carried out by force, and in the ideology area, any manifestations of dissent were ruthlessly suppressed. The struggle against the Catholic Church also unfolded in the country.
During the reign of Rakosi, a powerful apparatusState Security - AVH, which had 28,000 employees in its ranks, assisted by 40,000 informants. All aspects of the life of Hungarian citizens were under the control of this service. As it became known in the post-communist period, the files were filed for a million residents of the country, of which 655,000 were persecuted, and 450,000 were serving various terms of imprisonment. They were used as free labor in mines and mines.
In the field of economy, as well as in the politicallife, there was an extremely difficult situation. It was caused by the fact that as a military ally of Germany, Hungary was to pay the Soviet Union, Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia a significant reparation, to pay which nearly one quarter of the national income was spent. Of course, this has had a very negative impact on the living standards of ordinary citizens.
Short political thaw
Certain changes in the life of the country1953, when, in view of the obvious failure of industrialization and the weakening of ideological pressure on the part of the USSR caused by Stalin's death, Matyash Rakoshi, a man detested by the people, was dismissed from his post as head of government. His place was taken by another Communist - Imre Nagy, a supporter of immediate and cardinal reforms in all areas of life.
As a result of the measures that he adopted,political persecution and amnestied by their former victims. By a special decree, Nagy put an end to the internment of citizens and their forced eviction from cities on social grounds. The construction of a number of unprofitable large industrial facilities was also stopped, and the funds allocated for them were sent to the development of food and light industry. In addition, government agencies have eased pressure on agriculture, reduced tariffs for the population and reduced food prices.
The resumption of the Stalinist course and the beginning of unrest
However, in spite of the fact that similar measures were takenthe new head of the government is very popular among the people, they also became an excuse for exacerbating the inner-party struggle in the VLT. Dislocated from the post of head of government, but retaining the leading position in the party, Matyas Rakosi managed to overpower his political opponent through backstage intrigues and with the support of the Soviet communists. As a result, Imre Nagy, on whom most of the ordinary citizens of the country laid down their hopes, was removed from office and expelled from the party.
A consequence of this was the Hungariancommunists the resumption of Stalin's line of government and the continuation of political repression. All this caused extreme dissatisfaction among the general public. The people began to openly demand the return to power of Nadia, general elections, built on an alternative basis and, crucially, the withdrawal of Soviet troops from the country. This last requirement was particularly relevant, since the signing in May 1955 of the Warsaw Treaty gave the USSR foundation to retain its contingent of troops in Hungary.
The Hungarian uprising was the result of an exacerbationpolitical situation in the country in 1956. An important role was played also by the events of the same year in Poland, where there were open anti-communist statements. Their result was the intensification of critical attitudes among students and the writing intelligentsia. In the middle of October, a large part of the youth announced their withdrawal from the "Democratic Union of Youth", which was analogous to the Soviet Komsomol, and the entry into the student union that existed before, but overtaken by the Communists.
As it often happened in the past, the push to startthe insurrection was given by students. Already on October 22, they formulated and presented to the government demands that included I. Nadia's appointment as prime minister, the organization of democratic elections, the withdrawal of Soviet troops from the country and the demolition of monuments to Stalin. Banners with such slogans were prepared to be carried by the participants of the nationwide demonstration planned for the next day.
October 23, 1956
This procession, which began in Budapest exactly infifteen hours, attracted more than two hundred thousand participants. The history of Hungary hardly remembers a different, so unanimous display of political will. By this time, the Soviet ambassador, the future head of the KGB, Yuri Andropov, urgently contacted Moscow and reported in detail about all that is happening in the country. He ended his communication with a recommendation to provide the Hungarian Communists with comprehensive, including military, assistance.
By the evening of the same day, the newly appointed firstsecretary of the EAP Erno Gerho spoke on the radio condemning the demonstrators and threats against them. In response, a crowd of protesters rushed to storm the building where the broadcasting studio was located. Between them and the forces of state security there was an armed clash, as a result of which the first killed and wounded appeared.
Regarding the source of the demonstrators' receiptweapons in the Soviet media put forward the claim that it was previously delivered to Hungary by Western special services. However, it can be seen from the testimony of the participants in the events that it was received or simply taken away from the reinforcements sent to help the defenders of the radio. It was also produced in civil defense warehouses and in captured police stations.
Soon the uprising swept the whole of Budapest. The army units and state security units did not have serious resistance, first, because of their small numbers - there were only two and a half thousand people, and secondly, because many of them openly sympathized with the insurgents.
The first entry of Soviet troops into Hungary
In addition, an order was issued not to open fire oncivilians, and this has deprived the military of the opportunity to take serious action. As a result, by the evening of October 23, in the hands of the people, there were many key objects: warehouses with weapons, newspapers and the Central City Railway Station. Aware of the threat of the situation, on the night of October 24, the Communists, wishing to gain time, re-appointed Imre Nagy as prime minister, and they themselves appealed to the government of the USSR with a request for troops to Hungary in order to suppress the Hungarian uprising.
The result of the appeal was the entry into the territorythe country has 6,500 troops, 295 tanks and a significant number of other military equipment. In response, the urgently educated Hungarian National Committee appealed to the President of the United States with a request to provide military assistance to the rebels.
In the morning of October 26 during a rally on the squareParliament building, fire was opened from the roof of the house, as a result of which a Soviet officer was killed and a tank was set on fire. This provoked a return fire, costing the lives of a hundred demonstrators. The news of the incident quickly flew around the country and became the cause of massacres of residents with security officers and simply military men.
Despite the fact that, wishing to normalizesituation in the country, the government announced an amnesty to all participants in the mutiny, voluntarily lay down their arms, the clashes continued all the following days. Has not affected the current situation and the replacement of the first secretary of the ETA Erno Gero by Janos Kadaram. In many areas, the leadership of party and government agencies simply scattered, and in their place spontaneously formed bodies of local self-government.
The withdrawal of Soviet troops from the country and the beginning of chaos
As the participants in the events testify, afterthe ill-fated incident on the square in front of the parliament, Soviet troops did not take any active action against the demonstrators. After the statement of the head of the government Imre Nagy about the condemnation of the former "Stalinist" methods of leadership, the dissolution of the security forces and the beginning of negotiations on the withdrawal of Soviet troops from the country, many had the impression that the Hungarian uprising had achieved the desired results. The fighting in the city stopped, for the first time in recent days, silence reigned. The result of negotiations between Nadia and the Soviet leadership was the withdrawal of troops, which began on October 30.
During these days, many parts of the country found themselves inan atmosphere of complete anarchy. Former power structures were destroyed, and new ones were not created. The government sitting in Budapest had practically no effect on what was happening on the streets of the city, and there was a sharp surge in crime, as more than ten thousand criminals were released from prisons along with political prisoners.
In addition, the situation was aggravated by the fact thatThe Hungarian uprising of 1956 very soon radicalized. This resulted in massacres of servicemen, former employees of state security agencies, and even by ordinary Communists. More than twenty party leaders were executed in the building alone of the central committee of the WFP. In those days photos of their mutilated bodies flew across the pages of many world publications. The Hungarian revolution began to take on the features of a "senseless and ruthless" riot.
Re-entry of armed forces
The subsequent suppression of the uprising by the Soviettroops became possible primarily as a result of the position taken by the US government. Promising military and economic support to I. Nadia's cabinet, the Americans at a critical moment gave up their obligations, allowing Moscow to interfere unchecked in the current situation. The Hungarian uprising of 1956 was almost doomed to defeat, when on October 31 at a meeting of the CPSU Central Committee Khrushchev spoke in favor of taking the most radical measures to establish communist rule in the country.
On the basis of his orders, the Minister of DefenseUSSR Marshal GK Zhukov led the development of a plan for armed invasion of Hungary, known as the "Whirlwind". It provided for the participation in the hostilities of fifteen tank, motorized and infantry divisions, with the involvement of the air force and amphibious forces. For the implementation of this operation, almost all leaders of the Warsaw Pact countries spoke out.
Operation "Whirlwind" began with the fact that on November 3The recently appointed Hungarian Defense Minister, Major-General Pal Maleter, was arrested by the Soviet KGB. This happened during the negotiations held in the city of Tököle, not far from Budapest. Entering the same basic contingent of armed forces, which was personally commanded by GK Zhukov, was produced the next morning. The official reason for this was the request of the government, headed by Janos Kadar. In a short time, the troops captured all the main objects of Budapest. Imre Nagy, saving his life, left the government building and took refuge in the embassy of Yugoslavia. Later, he will be deceived from there, betrayed to court and, together with Pal Maleter, will be publicly hanged as traitors to the Motherland.
Active suppression of the uprising
The main events unfolded on November 4. In the center of the capital, the Hungarian rebels had given the Soviet troops a desperate resistance. To suppress it, flamers were used, as well as incendiary and smoke shells. Only fear of the negative reaction of the international community to the large number of civilian casualties kept the command from bombing the city with airplanes already raised in the air.
In the coming days, all availablefoci of resistance, after which the Hungarian uprising in 1956 took the form of an underground struggle against the communist regime. In one way or another, it has not subsided over the next decades. As soon as the pro-Soviet regime was firmly established in the country, mass arrests of participants in the recent uprising began. The history of Hungary began to develop again according to the Stalinist scenario.
According to researchers, at that time,about 360 death sentences were handed down, 25 thousand citizens of the country were prosecuted, and 14 thousand of them served different terms of imprisonment. For many years, Hungary was behind the "Iron Curtain" that fenced the countries of Eastern Europe from the rest of the world. The USSR - the main bulwark of the communist ideology - closely watched everything that was happening in the countries under its control.</ p>