Consider the qualitative and quantitative composition of substances. Define its features for compounds of organic and inorganic origin.
What shows the qualitative composition of matter
He demonstrates the types of atoms that are in the molecule being analyzed. For example, water is formed by hydrogen and oxygen.
The molecule of sodium oxide includes sodium and oxygen atoms. In sulfuric acid contains hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur.
What does the composition quantify
It demonstrates the quantitative content of each element within a complex substance.
For example, in water there are two atoms of hydrogen and one oxygen. Sulfuric acid consists of two hydrogens, one sulfur atom, four oxygen.
In the composition of orthophosphoric acid there are three hydrogen atoms, one phosphorus, four oxygen atoms.
The qualitative and quantitative composition of substances is also found in organic substances. For example, methane contains one carbon and four hydrogen.
Methods for determining the composition of matter
Qualitative and quantitative composition of substancescan be determined chemically. For example, when a molecule of a compound is decomposed, several molecules with a simpler composition are formed. Thus, when calcium carbonate, consisting of calcium, carbon, four oxygen atoms is heated, two oxides can be obtained: calcium and carbon.
Complex matter and compounds that are formed during the course of chemical decomposition can have different qualitative and quantitative composition of substances.
Simple and complex compounds can be molecular as well as non-molecular compounds.
The first group is in different aggregate states. For example, sugar is a solid, water is a liquid, oxygen is a gas.
Compounds of non-molecular structure under standard conditions are in solid form. These include salts. In the process of heating, they melt, go from solid to liquid form.
Examples of composition determination
"Describe the qualitative and quantitative compositionof the following substances: sulfur oxide (4), sulfur oxide (6) ". This task is typical in the school course of inorganic chemistry. In order to cope with it, it is first necessary to formulate the formulas of the proposed compounds, using valencies or degrees of oxidation.
In both proposed oxides there are one andthe same chemical elements, therefore, their qualitative composition is the same. They include atoms of sulfur and oxygen. But in the quantitative relationship, the results will differ.
The first compound contains two oxygen atoms, and the second contains six.
We will perform the following task: "Describe the qualitative and quantitative composition of H2S substances".
The hydrogen sulfide molecule consists of a sulfur atom andtwo hydrogens. The qualitative and quantitative composition of the H2S substance makes it possible to foresee its chemical properties. Since there is a hydrogen cation in the composition, hydrogen sulphide is able to exhibit oxidative properties. For example, these characteristics are manifested in interaction with the active metal.
Information on qualitative and quantitativethe composition of the substance is also relevant for organic compounds. For example, knowing the quantitative content of components in the hydrocarbon molecule, you can determine its belonging to a certain class of substances.
Such information allows to anticipate the chemical and physical characteristics of the hydrocarbon being analyzed, to reveal its specific properties.
For example, knowing that the composition has four atomscarbon and ten hydrogens, we can conclude that this substance belongs to the class of saturated hydrocarbons having the general formula CnH2n + 2. Reactions of substitution by radical mechanism, as well as oxidation by air oxygen, are characteristic for all representatives of this homologous series.
Any inorganic and organic matterhas a certain quantitative and qualitative composition. The information is necessary for establishing the physical and chemical properties of the inorganic compound being analyzed, and for organic substances the composition makes it possible to establish belonging to the class, to reveal the characteristic and specific chemical properties.</ p>