Ufa - the capital of Bashkiria - the largest scientific,cultural, industrial center of the Southern Urals. Thanks to the diligence of Ufimtsev, the city is one of the most comfortable in Russia for living. Wide avenues, green streets, a harmonious combination of old quarters and modern microdistricts form a positive image of the metropolis.
As part of Muscovy Ufa - as a fortification - was founded in 1574. However, according to the excavations of the ancient fortification of Ufa-II, the Bashkir capital is at least 1500 years old. On the territory of the medieval city found evidence of active social life: gold blanks for jewelry, iron bars with traces of processing, ceramics. So the city was big and powerful. According to the researchers, the fortification of Ufa-II is nothing more than the ancient capital of Bashkirs, the legendary city of Imen-kala (Oak town), which was also written by the twelfth century Arab historian Idrisi.
Modern Ufa (Bashkortostan) has its ownpedigree from the Kremlin, erected on behalf of Ivan the Terrible on the land of Bashkiria. After the capture of Kazan, the formidable Tsar was thinking of joining the lands of the Bashkirs, related to the Tatars, but the army was too exhausted. Then the Moscow ruler invited the local peoples to voluntarily join the strong, strong state that became the nucleus of the future Russia.
From the fortress to the city
The old fortress was located at the foot of the hill (insouthern part of Pervomayskaya Square), where the Friendship monument is erected. From it the oldest streets of the city began: the Big Kazan (the very first, it is 400 years old), the Siberian (Mingazhev), Posadskaya, Ilinskaya, Frolovskaya, Usolskaya, Budanovsky, Sergievskaya and Moscow.
The status of the city of Ufa (Bashkiria) was received in 1582. Gradually, a small fortress turns into a central settlement of the Bashkir people. Here appeared the town hall - the self-government body, in 1772 transformed into a magistrate. After 30 years, in 1802, the settlement became a provincial town.
Ufa XVII-XVIII centuries
The capital of Bashkiria during this period was a typical small provincial border town-fortress. It consisted of:
- suburban settlement.
The main task of the city was defensesouth-eastern borders of the expanding Russian state. The center of Ufa was the Kremlin, surrounded by a wall, behind which, in the event of an enemy threat, residents of the rest of the city could take shelter.
At first, there were about 300 people,the total number of households is less than 200. The seventeenth century is significant for the active settlement of the settlement: together with the garrison, the total number of townspeople has passed for fifteen hundred. In addition to military service, the townspeople engaged in agriculture: livestock, beekeeping, gardening, growing grain. Among the crafts flourished leather and forging trades (smithies located on the shore of Sutoloka).
On securities, By the end of the 18th century, Ufa had grown to 1,058 households, 2,389 residents lived here, although, according to some historians, at that time there were more than 3000 people in Ufa. Most of the townspeople belonged to raznochintsy, petty bourgeois. Much less was military, merchants and nobles.
The whole network of streets of the historical center of Ufa is createdthe largest specialist in the field of Russian urban planning, the architect William Geste, who was specially invited from St. Petersburg. He came to Ufa in 1819.
Since then, the sights have survivedLittle. Frequent fires destroyed wooden buildings, and stone built very little. Only single architectural monuments of antiquity can boast Ufa. Bashkortostan is the birthplace of nomads, who developed not material, but spiritual culture.
One of the surviving examples of woodenArchitecture - Pokrovskaya church (dates back to the XIX century) on Mingazhev Street. In Soviet times, the Yondoz cinema was located here, and now this building has again become ecclesiastical.
Among the stone buildings of the pre-revolutionary erathe station of the station "Ufa" is allocated. Bashkiria in 1888 was merged with the metropolis by the railway. First, a branch of the Samara-Ufa railway was built. Since 1890 the station building was subordinated to the management of Samara-Zlatousovskaya, since 1949 - the Ufa Railway. Since 2003 it has a modern name and status. At present, the station complex of the Ufa station undergoes major reconstruction.
Also in Ufa preserved:
- House of the Civil Governor (XIX century). Now the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Belarus is located in this building.
- Architectural monument is also the building of the Noble Assembly (erected in 1852). He was transferred to the Ufa Academy of Arts.
- The building of Provincial Institutions (1839). Now this is a donor item.
- Other sights.
The oldest building is considered angularOne-story house of the mining company Demidov (on the street October Revolution-57). The house was built in the middle of the 18th century. After the death of its owner, Ivan Demidov, in 1823 the house was purchased by the Ufa merchant F.S. Safronov. The house is famous for the fact that in November 1774 the commander AV Suvorov stayed in it.
The capital of Bashkiria is included in the TOP Russiancities with a million inhabitants, occupying the 11th place by the number of inhabitants. At the beginning of 2015, the number of the resident population, according to preliminary estimates, amounted to 1.1 million people. It increased in comparison with the beginning of 2008 by almost 70 000 people. The general demographic situation since 2007 is characterized by an increase in the birth rate, a decrease in mortality and, as a result, a natural increase in the population. For the first time since 1993, Ufa is the only city with a million population of the Russian Federation, where in 2008 there was a natural increase.
Symbology and Administration
In the administrative plan, Bashkortostan -republic. Ufa is the capital of this Ural region. On September 6, 2007, at the meeting of the City Council, the deputies approved the city's flag. This attribute, unlike the coat of arms of the Bashkir capital, appeared for the first time in the history of the city. The coat of arms appeared initially in the middle of the XVII century and underwent significant changes. The new coat of arms was approved on October 12, 2006 and registered by the Heraldic Council. Both the coat of arms and the flag represent the stylization of the marten running along the green field.
The first mayor of Ufa was Mikhail Alekseevich Zaitsev. To this position he was transferred from the post of chairman of the Ufa City Council on March 19, 1992. In 1995, MA Zaitsev was elected the first Chairman of the State Assembly - Kurultai - the Republic of Bashkortostan. He is an honorary citizen of Ufa. Today (2015) the head of the Ufa Ufa is II Yalalov.
The districts of Bashkiria are divided into districts. In turn, Ufa is divided into seven districts and 45 rural settlements that are subordinate to them. In the city there are 1237 streets. Their total length, taking into account the passageways, embankments is 1475.2 kilometers. The Ufa agglomeration is home to 1.4 million people (2008), or one third of the total population of the republic.
A truly hard-working people is famousthe Republic of Bashkortostan. The capital is not an exception. The largest industrial enterprises are located in the north-eastern part of the city. Among them, the giants of the Bashkir oil refining and petrochemical industry and the Ufa Engine Building Association (UMPO). The central street of this industrial area is Pervomayskaya, it is on two sides crowned by two beautiful cultural buildings (named after S. Ordzhonikidze and the Ufa Engine Building Association).
In the construction of about two dozenlarge enterprises of different forms of ownership. They include the Housing Construction Fund of the Republic of Bashkortostan, the Investment and Construction Committee of Ufa, the Bashkir Investment and Construction Company, the Bashkir Industrial and Construction Company, the Bashkirgrazhdanproekt Institute, the Archproekt, the Bashmeliovodkhoz , "Prostor", OAO KPD and others.
The first power plant was built on 1.02.1898 year. It was built by engineer N.V. Konshin at his own expense and supplied electric power to the houses of the rich, city institutions, industrial and trade objects. Illuminated and the central streets, which were installed 50 arc lamps. Today, the total length of electric lighting lines in the capital of Bashkortostan is 1,669.23 kilometers, including 549.3 kilometers - cable lines. Illumination of streets is occupied by MUEP "Ufagorsvet".
The capital of Bashkortostan is recognizedscientific and educational center. The first schools were called "tsifirnaya" and "garrison". Tsifirnaya is open in Peter's time. Little is known about the school - up to now only "moments" have come about a kind of punishment: the students were forbidden to marry if they left the school on their own. In the garrison they taught the basics of mathematics, reading, artillery, fortification. In 1778 the garrison school was transferred to Orenburg.
The opening of the first institute took place on 4.10.1909 year. It was the Ufa Teachers' Institute. Here teachers of the Russian language, mathematics, physics, natural sciences, history and other wisdoms were trained. Then he was transformed into the Bashkir Pedagogical Institute named after K. A. Timiryazev. Since 1957 - the Bashkir State University. Today there are more than a dozen universities and hundreds of schools, colleges, lyceums.
Culture and Sports
The capital of Bashkortostan is also a culturalthe capital of the region. The Bashkir State Philharmonic was opened in Ufa in 1939 in the former synagogue building on Gogol Street, 58. The organizer was the composer and singer Gaziz Almukhametov. The Philharmonic united the choir, operetta, wind, folk orchestras and other disciplines.
In Ufa there are 1274 sports facilities, including 4a stadium with stands for 1500 seats or more, a Sports Palace with two artificial ice rinks, Akbuzat racetrack, a complex of springboards, a biathlon complex, Ufa Arena, a modern stadium Dynamo. It is also planned to build water parks in Ufa. Especially worth noting Ufa circus.</ p>