The rules of reading English are quite complex. The child can learn the pronunciation independently, learn to understand the speech by ear, but it will be impossible to learn how to read in English without the help of adults. And it's not just that the same letter can be pronounced differently depending on the environment, but also that the rules do not cover all the variety of options for reading one and the same combination. There are many exceptions.
In this article we will give recommendations thatwill teach children the rules of reading English in an accessible and fascinating form. The lessons do not take much time: only 10-15 minutes daily.
When can I start learning to read in English?
The rule is one: the sooner the better. With this you can argue, because it is known that in the native language most children begin to read at the age of 5-6 years. But waiting for this age is not worth it. After six years, the child's possibilities are no longer so wide. The earlier a child begins to learn the skills of reading in English, the easier it will be afterwards. It is important to give tasks by force. Do not expect quick reading at 6 years old. Just get ready for it. For example, learn songs about letters and the alphabet, they are very easy to remember. At school age, it is more difficult to learn them, and regardless of the child's abilities, this will take more time.
How to build training?
The rules of reading English for childrenare presented on the principle of "from simple to complex." For some strange reason, students in Russian non-specialized schools begin to learn English from transcription, which is perceived by the majority as something tedious, incomprehensible and completely unnecessary. Forget about it, it is necessary for adults. When teaching children, observe the sequence "sound - meaning - letter". How much joy delivers the first word read, the meaning of which is clear!
1. To teach reading and to replenish the vocabulary, you can use techniques based on Glenn Doman's technique. They all look to the child's incredible memory. You will need cards with printed words and images that describe these words, and, of course, good pronunciation. In these cards you can play even with a newborn. First you should show the picture and voice it, then show the written word and voice it, then move on to more active activities. For example, offer the child several cards with words, show the image and ask to find this word in written form. Of course, the kid does not realize the rules by which these expressions are read, but in the end he reads them just like an adult: he sees the inscription and immediately understands its meaning, notices if it is written with an error. The only difference: in order to read so, the child did not need to move from letters to words. Memory allows you to gain a decent vocabulary in just two years.
2. Meet the sounds, not the names of the letters. For example, the sound "k" and the English letter "c", as in the word "cat". Show on the letter "C" and say: "To!" - "KET!" It is important for examples of reading to choose words whose meanings are already familiar to the child. You can type vocabulary at the same time as learning sounds and their symbolic symbols - letters, but this is more difficult.
3. First, choose more common variations of the sound. Say, the letter "C" is much more often read as "K", as in the word "Cat", and rarely "S", as in the word "Sity". First, study all the consonants. As a rule, they are read everywhere equally.
4. Now you can proceed to reading the syllables. You need cards with syllables and letters that can be put into words. The words are chosen the simplest and those that are read according to the rules. For example, the syllable -at. From it you can compose the words "cat" (cat), "rat" (rat), "fat" (thick). The method is as follows: an adult reads one word and suggests similarly to read similar to a child.
When a child easily reads even new words and determines how a particular letter sounds (no matter, consonant or vowel), you can proceed to the next stage.
5. Learn to read consonant combinations. The rules of reading English in this area are quite simple, although we are not used to it. Sh reads like w, ch - as h etc. Give more simple examples. For example, "ship", "chin" (chin).
6. Further you follow the same principle: you master all new combinations of letters. First, practice the simplest rules of reading English, then go on to complex ones. In this case, combinations of vowels and consonants, such as ar (bar, star, war). More complex are combinations of vowels, for example, ee, as in the word "sheep".
7. Words with an open syllable, that is, those in which they are not closed by consonants, are perceived more difficult, they need to be left at last. For example, the word "Tale". It has two syllables, each of which is read differently than in closed syllables. Letter a here it does not sound like the word "cat". But you do not have to explain to the child what open and closed syllables are. With practice, he will understand this difference unconsciously. Such patterns are often formed and in adults who read a lot of texts with parallel translation. Without knowing the rules, they correctly determine how a certain word is pronounced, simply because they have already seen how many other similar ones are read.
But you can clearly separate these two tasks - reading and writing, and first learn only the first.
The rules of reading English contain a lotexceptions. They will need to be spoken separately with the child, paying attention to this or that expression. This problem is facilitated by the fact that incorrect words are the most common and very common. So you will not have difficulties in order to explain this or that non-standard rule of reading English.
Following this technique, you can learn to read by the age of six. All the rules of reading English a child can master in two or three years.</ p>