Let's try to find out what are thebiological and chronological age. These concepts arose in the process of understanding the unevenness of formation, maturity, and aging. The phenomenon of uneven age-related changes explains the difference in the age of the chronological age from the psychological age.
The concept of biological age
Age is the length of the gaptime from the birth of a person to any other period. For each person, he has his own indicator, depends on many social and physiological factors. Anatomy-physiological age is defined as the sum of structural, metabolic, regulatory, and physiological processes. It may differ from the calendar life.
Individuality of a person
Chronological age is the time interval from the appearance of a person to the light up to a certain time of calculation.
Biological and chronological age is often notcoincide, since each person has certain individual characteristics, is characterized by the aging rate of physiological systems, the rate of age-related changes.
Chronological age is not a criterion fora full analysis of the working capacity and health of an aging person. It represents the level of morphological structures that are achieved by a single individual.
Biological age characterizes the leveldevelopment. Individual differences in the processes of development and growth can have a significant range. To the maximum extent the chronological framework of age is noticeable during puberty. In this time interval there is a serious physiological and morphological restructuring of the human body.
The emergence of the term
Most children have a chronological age andpsychological age coincide, but this does not always happen. There are also adolescents who have a serious lead over the chronological age of the biological. This term arose at the turn of the 30-40s of the last century. Among the domestic scientists who were studying this problem, was P.N. Sokolov.
He managed to define chronologicalage, and also to develop a special table of age qualities by the intensity of informative signs. In the second half of the twentieth century, material relating to biological age was published. This problem is the key to analyzing the impact of time on changes in the human body at different stages of development, combining ontogeny.
Characteristics of the growth process
During the allometric process,the development of organs and parts of the body is disproportionate to each other. Because of the different rates of their growth, the proportions of the body change. There are general features of the characteristics of the ontogenetic development of man:
- sexual dimorphism.
To explain the lead of the chronological age by the psychological age, let us consider these terms in more detail.
Continuity consists in the growth of different systems andorgans of the human body in a certain time period, it is carried out in a limited form. The organism is an open biological system that develops throughout its life.
Irreversibility and graduality implies the division of the growth process into stages or periods. If one of them is missed, it will be impossible to return to it.
The cyclicity is related to the seasons of the year, dailychanges in the state of the body. Sensitivity to exogenous and endogenous factors implies activation or restriction of growth rates under the influence of a huge range of environmental external factors.
Sexual dimorphism is the brightestcharacteristic of the formation of man. This process manifests itself in different degrees at all stages of ontogeny. "The sex factor" is important, researchers constantly compare men and women, analyzing the concept of chronological age.
Among the fundamental characteristics thatare taken into account by scientists, the individuality of the course of ontogenesis is of interest. The dynamics of development in all people is different, so you can talk only about the general features, because not all are ahead of the chronological age of psychological age at maturity.
Criteria for detecting biological age
If the chronological age is determined by passport data, then by means of a biological species it is possible to assess the individuality of the age status. The analysis is carried out in accordance with the following criteria:
- maturity, assessed on the basis of the formation of secondary sexual characteristics;
- Skeletal maturity associated with the degree of ossification of the skeleton;
- tooth maturity, analyzed by the erasure of teeth, the number of permanent and milk teeth.
Morphological maturity is revealed on the basis ofthe formation of endurance, musculoskeletal system, coordination of movements. Its evaluation experts give on the basis of changes in the proportions of the body, which occur with a slow growth of the neck and head with accelerated limb formation.
Features of evaluation
The characteristics used to assessbiological age of a person, must comply with a certain list of requirements. First of all, they must reflect specific age changes that can be measured or described in detail. The measurements carried out should not negatively affect the health of the subject, causing him to have negative and painful sensations.
The biological age option should be suitable for the study of the maximum number of people.
The specifics of the assessment
In auxiology, different systems are usedDetermination of biological age, which fully meet all the requirements. In addition to dental, bone age, sexual development, physiological and morphological maturity, mental and mental indices are estimated.
Sexual maturity is analyzed based on the level of development of sexual characteristics: mutation of the voice, the onset of the menstrual cycle, the development of the mammary glands, the appearance of hair in the armpits.
In the analysis of biological age, maturity indicators are used that are specific for the specific physiological systems of our body.
There have been attempts to evaluate on the basis of age-related changes in the microstructures of individual organs, but they did not give a positive result.
Chronological age of man is far from alwayscoincides with its biological characteristics. To assess the biological age, a comparison is made of certain indicators of the development of the studied individual with the generally accepted standards found for the ethnic, sexual, and age groups.
Features of modern research
To ensure that the results of the studies are complete andreliable, scientists use different indicators. If the chronological age is a "passport" indicator, then biological characteristics are often characterized as the age of development. It is a reflection of the rate of individual development, growth, formation, aging of an individual organism.
Different people have a relationship between the rates of development andgrowth in certain stages of ontogeny can differ substantially. So, if for a group of girls the chronological age is ten years, then in biological formation, about half of the composition has deviations to the larger (smaller) side.
By the discrepancy between biological andchronological age, it is possible to assess the intensity of aging, functional characteristics of a person. For example, the maximum rates of age-related changes were found in long-livers.
In addition to heredity, the biological agedepends on the way of life, the environment in which a person is formed and develops. It involves taking into account external pathological changes that act on the body.
People who have the same chronological age,in the second half of their lives significantly differ in morphological and functional status. Those who have positive heredity combined with a favorable lifestyle, look much younger than passport data.
Among the main manifestations of agingbiological age, we distinguish violations of important vital functions, as well as narrowing the range of adaptation, the emergence of diseases, increasing the risk of death, reducing the duration of the remaining life.
Methods for assessing biological age
This term appeared due to the fact thatChronological age is not considered a full-fledged criterion for the ability to work and the state of health of an aging population. Even among peers there are noticeable differences in the rate of age changes. Biological age is advisable to determine in people who are older than thirty years. Evaluation of this indicator is important for social workers, doctors, it makes it possible to diagnose various diseases, to carry out social and hygienic measures, to look for ways to prolong active old age.
If the biological age lags behindchronological index, you can count on a full life, but with premature aging, unfortunately, a person much earlier needs additional care and care.
For example, if significantdiscrepancies between calendar and biological clocks, premature withering of the skin occurs, gray hair appears, numerous wrinkles are formed. Even with the stable activity of the brain and the heart muscle, the appearance of the person reveals his condition.
To assess the biological age, a thorough and comprehensive medical and anthropological examination of the patient is carried out.
Modern research and methods
Tests for outpatient studies include evaluation of growth, circumference of the chest, weight, shoulder diameter, thickness of the skin fold.
In addition, such functionalindicators of the state of systems and organs, such as respiratory rate, blood pressure, muscle strength of brushes, visual acuity, ECG, vibration sensitivity, memory status, psychomotorics.
From laboratory studies that allow determining the biological age of a person, we will select a biochemical blood test, as well as an overall urinalysis.
At this time interval there is a sufficient number of such tests, each of which has certain goals and objectives.
Some researchers are convinced that forconducting experiments, special attention should be given to morphological criteria, not taking into account the psychological indicators related to professional performance, health, social adaptation. This position is not objective, since it is associated only with age-related changes occurring at the molecular level.
With the help of a shortened method,the determination of biological age in adults. To do this, analyze the state of the cardiopulmonary system, the psyche, the sense organs, the motor apparatus, and estimate the number of healthy teeth.
When considering the passport and biologicalage, it is important to take into account individual characteristics, gender, ethnic group, social factors. Psychophysiological maturity is determined using Kern-Irasek tests. They are based on changes in the proportions of the body, slowing the growth of the neck, accelerating the development of the limbs.
Skeletal maturity is considered an excellent indicatorbiological age for all stages of ontogeny. As the bone grows, there are characteristic changes that can be recorded on radiographs.
Characteristic indicators of age-related changes are the appearance of ossification nuclei, as well as the formation of stenoses. It is these indicators that judge the state of the human body.
It is the bone system used to detectbiological age of the person during all postnatal ontogenesis. As the body ages, osteosclerosis, osteoporosis, and numerous deformations of the joints appear. Dental maturity is also used as a traditional method for detecting the biological age. When comparing the data relating to a particular person to the standards drawn up in advance, certain results are obtained. Certainly, there are serious discrepancies between passport and biological age, for example, in people of creative professions: artists, teachers, artists. These people remain active much longer than financiers and accountants.</ p>