The history of sociology in Russia began to emerge in60's of the 19th century. It was at this time that the reading public and the scientific community first began to get acquainted with the translations of articles and books by O. Comte. The wide spread of Russian sociology was hampered in every way by the censorship of Comte's ideas, as well as the decline in interest abroad towards positivism after his death. The wave of "second reading" O. Comte, swept the developed countries and France, and captured Russia. In magazines "Russian word", "Contemporary", "Notes of the Fatherland", etc. began to appear articles on sociology and O. Comte, written by VV Lesievich, PL Lavrov, DI Pisarev.
A huge contribution to the development of sociology in Russiamade the first Russian sociologists: the initiators of this science are Kareyev, Yuzhakov, Mikhailovsky, Lavrov, and others. They have contributed to the development of sociology in Russia by forming their own approach to cognition and research of social phenomena. They viewed society through the prism of the behavior of its individuals, especially the people of purposeful, developed, active - the subjective method. One of the works of NK Mikhailovsky was called "Heroes and the crowd." The development of sociology in Russia was marked by the following problems: the emergence of the human personality from the animal, the progress of society and the division of labor, the relationship of the natural and the social to the development of society, the impact on the progress of the economic sphere.
By the beginning of the 20th century, sociology in Russia already hadcertain achievements. The development of sociology in Russia by that time was marked by an expansion of the range of problems studied, the following directions were manifested: psychological, geographic, materialistic. At this time, Russian sociology begins to influence the development of long-existing sciences: history, law, philosophy and other social sciences.
If we talk about the stages of the development of sociology inRussia, the formation, the birth of sociology in Russia, which lasted from the 60s to the 90s of the 19th century, can be attributed to the first stage. It was at this time that sociological ideas spread, directions of sociological thought were formed, which took root in the Russian sciences.
The history of sociology in Russia is a period of time with90 years of the 19 century to the 20-ies of the 20th century considers as the second stage of development - there is an institutionalization, ie, recognition of it by society and the state, the creation of scientific institutions, departments and departments, the establishment of societies and scientific journals and t .
At this stage, the development of sociology in Russia took place in close interaction with the foreign, namely, with European sociology.
To great regret, in the 1920s. an increasingly cautious and hostile attitude to sociological science from the side of the Soviet government begins. This stage ended with the closure of sociological institutions, and sociologists with non-Marxist views and teachings were expelled from Russia or sent to camps for "re-education." Since 1922, the chairs have been closed and studies in sociology in universities have been discontinued, the Sociological Society founded by MM Kovalevsky has been closed.
The third stage in Russian sociology was the most"Black" and lasted from the 1920's. until the 1950s. During this period, sociology receives the label of "bourgeois science" and is replaced by Marxist-Leninist philosophy and scientific communism.
A new partial institutionalization began only after the condemnation of the "personality cult" of Stalin, but the development of sociology was restrained by the CPSU and it was not widely spread in the society.
The modern, fourth stage came in the 1980s and was marked by the rapid development of Russian sociology. Sociology receives the status of an independent science and is taught in all Russian universities.
Passing through all stages of the development of sociology inRussia can see that it has more than a century and a half history. Due to the fact that this is one of the rapidly developing sciences, the gaps in our knowledge of social relations and society are being gradually eliminated, we are gradually catching up with the national sociology schools of developed countries that have gone ahead.</ p>