All living organisms are composed of cells thatlive their lives, share and develop. The process of division can occur in two completely opposite ways, which have the same stages: meiosis and mitosis.
For living organisms, the cells of which containthe nucleus is characteristic of mitosis. These are mainly animals, plants and mushrooms. In science, this method of division is called vegetative reproduction. Meiosis is also a method of division, but its feature is a halving of the number of chromosomes.
We will understand how mitosis differs from meiosis. Each process goes through similar stages, but for each of them there are peculiarities, which are the main differences.
The first stage is the process of division. The process of mitosis involves the division of chromosomes. Each of them forms two new ones, which are distributed between two emerging cells. Science has proved that the further fate of new cells can have a completely different outcome. So, for example, they can further divide, or division will continue one cell. It is possible to stop the process of division simultaneously in two cells.
The process of meiosis passes a little differently. It is based on two divisions. The first is accompanied by a decrease in the number of chromosomes exactly twice. The diploid cell splits into two haploid cells. For each chromosome, two chromatids are characteristic. The second division does not involve a decrease in the number of chromosomes. As a result of the second division four new cells are formed. In each cell, one chromosome and one chromatid are localized. Meiosis and mitosis, despite their similarity, have differences already in the first stage.
The second stage is conjugation. The first division of cells in the process of meiosis involves the unification of homologous chromosomes. The process of mitosis differs completely from the absence of any kind of mating. Next is the alignment of chromosomes. Mitosis is characterized by the presence of paired chromosomes, but their uniform distribution along the equator does not occur in pairs, but in separation. In this case, the process of meiosis assumes a completely different effect. Here the alignment along the equator passes in pairs.
Comparison of the processes of mitosis and meiosis showed thatdifferences appear not only in the process of division, but also in the end. Mitosis becomes the basis for the formation of a pair of somatic and diploid cells. It should be noted that hereditary factors remain throughout the process. As a result of the meiosis, two pairs of germ cells are formed of a haploid character. As for the issue of heredity, it is not preserved and ultimately completely changed.
However, the most important difference is in the characterprocess of reproduction. Meiosis is a process of sexual reproduction, which, as a rule, proceeds exclusively in the germ cells at the stage of maturation. Mitosis underlies asexual reproduction of somatic cells. In addition, it is mitosis that is the only way for somatic cells to recover.
In addition, meiosis and mitosis have significantDifferences in the nature of its purpose. Meiosis accompanies the maintenance of a constant number of chromosomes and stimulates the appearance of new ones. They have in their composition hereditary deposit. Mitosis is based on doubling chromosomes. It passes on the basis of longitudinal division. Then the formed chromosomes diverge through the daughter cells. The initial information is transmitted in full and does not change. It is the process of mitosis that is laid in the basis of the development of organisms consisting of a multitude of cells. It can be concluded that meiosis and mitosis, although they follow the same goal, have a huge number of differences and opposites.</ p>