Phraseological units are ... It would seem that this is correctthe beginning of an article on phraseology. I will not argue, but still I want to not just quote the main theses and once again retell the theory, but look at this question differently, at least for a start. So I'll start with the unusual. What is a word? To this question, any average student will respond like this: "The word is a noun of the middle kind, the second declension, inanimate." Stop, stop, stop. A new question is begging. Yes, indeed, it is inanimate - in other words, a soulless creature that does not breathe, does not live. But how then is it possible for this or that word to penetrate deep into, inspire or, on the contrary, destroy hopes, kill, live and die. Why does one word exist and the other live and breathe? How to revive the word? How to breathe life into it? I think that the answers can be phrases ...
In linguistics there is a whole section thatengaged in the study of phraseological units or phraseological phrases - phraseology. Therefore, one can only imagine how this phenomenon is deep in its essence and wide in application. So, science offers us the following interpretation: phraseology is a stable phrase, a turn consisting of several words, the general meaning of which does not correlate with the meanings of the word-components included in it (the phrase "to go to circulation" - to stop active activity, in which the meanings of words "exit" and "circulation" do not correspond to the general value). And now consider everything in order. All phraseological units have the following set of characteristic features:
- integral and permanent in composition (the "nail of the program" can not be changed and say "carnations" or "screw of the program");
- a single meaning ("hell fire" - hell, "goal as a falcon" - poverty);
- at syntactic analysis are one member of the sentence ("warming the soul" - the predicate, "Augean stables" - subject);
- one or more values ("get to the point" - 1) to finish what was started; 2) to come to any state);
- act as units of name ("home of tolerance", "pansies", "yellow press");
- express the evaluation ("as two drops of water", "after the sleeves").
Returning to the above, one can make oneconclusion. Phraseological units are living words in both direct and figurative sense. When and who breathed life into them? The answer is simple and obvious - the soul of a person. Only she is able to create. Only she is able to create the eternal. A simple word, consisting of a set of letters and sounds, it is impossible to convey what is happening in the person's soul, those states, those feelings, those emotions and sensations. A simple word only states the fact: for example, "to be rich" - a person is the owner of a large amount of money, and this is all that can be gleaned. And now let's compare it with the expression "in gold to swim." Do you feel the difference? It vividly conveys the inner state of a person when he has many material goods. Here, and delight, and bliss, and some impossible happiness.
How does this process of recovery take place? Hard to say. We can only guess. Many phraseological units were born from songs, fairy tales, legends, chronicles and parables: "milk rivers, kiselnye shore," "to beat the buckets," "to Kadykina mountain." They reflect the history of the people, traditions, customs, culture: "nesolono hlebavshi," "Mamai passed," "scraps from the master's table," "rolled up his sleeves."
Stable expressions include aphorisms,talented finds of writers, effective quotes of famous people. Some turns came in the process of borrowing from other languages and cultures, from the Bible, based on vivid images of Greco-Roman myths, etc.: "Sisyphus labor", "alter ego", "Augean stables", "manna of heaven".
Like all living things, some phraseological unitsthey become obsolete and die, new ones come to their place - "getting a residence permit" - getting a right to exist; "Pavlik Morozov" is a traitor, a little Judas; "shock therapy"; "shadow economy". In this endless world of phraseological units it is easy to get confused, especially for those who study foreign languages. It is important to remember here that phraseological phrases can not be translated verbatim. And in the rest - the Dictionary of Phraseologisms can become the main assistant, which gives an explanation to 20 thousand expressions.
And at last - someone may have a question: Why do we need phraseological units? Why complicate speech and burdens the texts with cumbersome phrases, which in fact can be replaced by one word? " On this question I have a counter: "Why do we need spices, spices, seasonings? After all, enough to cut, fry, cook - and the dish is ready." However, with the help of aromatic spices and burning seasonings, the preparation of each dish turns into real art, when the habitual becomes unique. Phraseological units are the same spices that can fill the text with inexpressible aromas and give it a special taste.</ p>