For the first time the term "sociology" was introduced by Auguste Comte,French scientist. Sociology, as an object, studies society, individuals in it, as well as the principles of building the relationship between them. The task of sociology is the explanation and practical solution of social problems in society.
Political relations in any society are studyingpolitical science. The sphere of issues studied by the subject of political science includes the analysis of the role and correlation of the main components of any political system: the state, various public organizations and political parties.
The fundamentals of sociology and political science, as subjects,studying the basic aspects of the functioning of society, allow us to view society as a single socio-cultural and political organization; provide an opportunity to comprehend the patterns of development of social relations in society inseparably linked with the regulation of socio-political; allow us to study the laws that determine the development of relations between the individual and society, and also provide an opportunity to analyze social structures and the nature of the relationship between the elements of this structure.
The formation of political science as a science givesthe ability to regulate socio-political relations, and the entire complex of interrelated problems that constitutes the concept of democracy; allows you to study the principles of foreign policy of states, as well as the development within the state of various political forces and their influence on the nature of international relations of the state.
Considering the basics of sociology and political scienceit can be argued that these two areas of functioning of modern society can only be considered in the aggregate of their manifestation. Political relations (internal and external) can only be analyzed in conjunction with the totality of social relations, to which economic, social and ideological relations can be attributed.
The structure of political science as a science about the laws of policy development, combines several directions and represents such sciences:
- Political philosophy. This section defines the basic principles of ideas about the place and role of politics in the system of social relations. Political philosophy defines the principles for the formation of certain fundamental moments in political science (the apparatus that defines concepts and categories in political science).
- history of political thought: an object that studies the stages of the evolution of ideas about the life of the state in the aspect of its policy, as well as studying the components of political life that existed in different epochs.
- Political sociology is aa very extensive branch of the study of political events, phenomena and processes based on the collection and analysis of empirical data. Fundamentals of sociology and political science, as sciences, make it possible to synthesize knowledge about various aspects of the development of society in a unified science.
- political psychology - a science that studiespolitical behavior of an individual in the society, as well as his motivation. Particular interest in this section of science is the study of the political behavior of the masses.
- Political anthropology studies a person,who (in any form) is engaged in political activities. This area of knowledge studies the prerequisites, motivation, conditions for people to enter the political sphere, the factor of personal interest in political relations, and also establishes "traces of presence" in human and human policy.
Studying the basics of sociology and political science, taking into account modern phenomena in the political and social life of states, one can come to the conclusion that these sciences are in constant development and dynamics.</ p>