One of the most powerful states in the worldStrikingly different from the surrounding lands of the barbarians. His culture, mentality, beliefs met the only system that helped to dominate the world. Ancient Rome, whose religion will interest us most in this article, has contributed to the formation of the modern face of the planet.
How it all began
To begin with, mention should be made of the beliefs of the tribes,who inhabited the lands that later entered the borders of the Eternal City. Like most of their neighbors, they worshiped spirits, the forces of nature. This then the latter turned into proud gods, who condescendingly looked down at the earthly inhabitants. Special keepers of houses (penates), families (laras) were patrimonial patrons of farmers who worshiped mother earth.
With the development of Rome, the main thing was his cult,his pantheon, those gods who gave life to the city. Mars and his sons Romulus and Remus, fed by a she-wolf, this is who the Ancient Rome owes its appearance to. Religion proclaimed the supremacy of the ruler of Romulus, claimed for him the right to decide the destinies of ordinary citizens, legitimized his exceptional position.
The beautiful antiquity
However, the roots of the city's belief system are sevenhills go beyond the peninsula of the Apennines. After all, according to legend, the foundations of the state here were laid by the legendary Eneas, a Trojan who left his Ilium after the end of the ten-year war. Therefore, the Greek influence is clearly traced in the culture of Rome. The Olympian gods from the sunny Hellas began to be identified with the local. That is why the religion of Ancient Greece and Rome is studied as a whole.
In the main place of Rome - on Capitol Hillwere not only the most important state institutions. In the 6th century BC, a magnificent temple of Jupiter, the supreme god, a powerful thunderer, was erected here. A little later, there immediately appears the abode of Vesta, the goddess of fire and patroness of the Roman people. In addition, in great honor were the Dioscuri of the patricians, the cult of Liber prospered among the plebeians. The religion of Ancient Rome called for worshiping also gods who personified virtues: peace (Pax), faithfulness (Fidesz), courage (Virtus), consent (Concordia).
But even the belief system was orderly. Ancient Rome, whose religion is interesting for studying today, divided the gods into three groups: chthonic, or earthly, heavenly and underground. Souls of ancestors, who enjoyed respect during their lifetime, became themselves after death deities. Villains and sinners became evil entities - lemurs, larvas.
A special class of society were the priests,who performed all the official ceremonies in the Roman Empire. They guessed and predicted, interpreted signs, determined the future, were advisers to the ruler on important issues. There was even the High Priestly College headed by the Great Pontiff, who was elected for life. Did this not find its reflection in Christianity? Did the tradition of electing the Pope of Rome the Holy Council of Cardinals go from there?
Ancient Rome, whose religion changed with the expansion of borders, worshiped the Egyptian gods Osiris and Isis, the Persian Miter, Dorian Cybele. Well, then the dominant place was occupied by Christianity.</ p>