ABOUT.Comte among all the methods used to study phenomena in sociology, considered the most effective observation. It is necessary for sociological knowledge to be accurate, objective and scientific.
Observation in sociology is reduced to the observation of social facts. They are understood as observable manifestations of people's physical behavior. Such observation helped to place sociology in the rank of a separate science, to give the material studied to it the character of scientific objectivity.
Observation in sociology is always based ona certain theory that is necessary for the effectiveness of this method. In addition, surveillance involves a clear delineation of the subject and the object. Observation in sociology in the opinion of O.Cont is possible only from the side. Then they did not know about the included observation. This method appeared only in the twentieth century in empirical sociology and immediately became very popular.
Observation in sociology Is a method that is used with certainlimitations, since not all social phenomena can be studied with its help. This is possible only with objects that can be perceived with the help of hearing and sight. For example, a strike must be investigated with the mandatory application of this method. Of course, it should be applied in a single complex with many other methods for collecting information.
However, not any auditory and visual observationcan be called an observation in the scientific sense. To turn simple contemplation into a scientific method, a number of research procedures will need to be carried out. This is the isolation of tasks and hypotheses that need to be checked; determine the object of observation, its subject, categories, conditions of observation, units, prepare tools in the form of diaries, protocols, technical means, data processing program, etc.
The next stage is pilotingtoolkit and making corrections in it, drawing up an observation plan, developing instructions. Only then it is possible to start the implementation of a set of operations related to direct observation in accordance with these requirements.
Allocate different types of observation in sociology.
External monitoring (from the side) allows you to record the activity of a social group without taking part in it. This observation can be explicit or hidden (for example, because of a translucent mirror).
Enabled monitoring in sociology implies the participation of the observer inactivity of the studied social group by becoming one of its members. In this case, its role can also be explicit and hidden (unknown team members). When using this method, the researcher minimally affects or consciously does not at all influence the reality under study. Its possible influence is considered as a forced error.
However, in a number of cases, researchers deliberatelycreate situations that are of interest to him. As far as possible, such artificial situations are maximally disguised as reality. In sociology this method is called experimental observation. Even in the laboratory, you can create an atmosphere close to reality.
Types of observation in sociology can also be divided into other features: for the use or non-use of equipment(recording, recording, measuring), periodicity, duration and a number of other features. Separate laboratory, field and mixed observation. Differentiate standardized and non-standardized observation. Different in essence are the methods of systematic, incidental and accidental observation. By formaliznosti distinguish uncontrolled (non-standardized, structureless) and controlled observation.