The smell of this gas is known to everyone - it immediatelyYou can feel it if you open the jar with ammonia. Something about his properties we were told at school. It is also known that it is one of the key products of the chemical industry: it is the easiest way to turn it into nitrogen, which so does not like to enter into chemical reactions. Ammonia is the first point from which the production of many nitrogen-containing compounds begins: various nitrites and nitrates, explosives and aniline dyes, drugs and polymeric materials ...
Liquid ammonia has rather unusual properties. Outwardly it resembles plain water. Like H2Oh, it perfectly dissolves many organic andinorganic compounds. Most salts in it dissociate when dissolved in ions. At the same time, chemical reactions, in contrast to water, occur in it quite differently.
Ba (NO3) 2
Solubility at 20 ° C, based on 100 g of solvent
The data in this table lead to the idea that liquid ammonia is a unique medium for carrying out certain exchange reactions that are practically unworkable in aqueous solutions.
2AgCl + Ba (NO3)2 = 2AgNO3 + BaCl2.
Since NH3 is a strong proton acceptor, aceticacid, in spite of the fact that it is considered to be weak, will dissociate completely, just as strong acids do. Of greatest interest are solutions in ammonia alcohol of alkali metals. Back in 1864, chemists noticed that if they were given some time, ammonia would evaporate, and in the sediment would be pure metal. Almost the same thing happens with aqueous solutions of salts. The difference is that the alkali metals, although in a small amount, but still react with ammonia, resulting in the formation of salt amides:
2Na + 2NH3 = 2NaNH2 + H2.
The latter are quite stable substances, but when they come into contact with water they immediately disintegrate:
NaNH2 + H2O = NH3 + NaOH.